ANALYSIS OF THE TIME ONTOLOGY AND TIME PATTERN

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THE INFORMATION LOGISTICS CONCEPT

There is no doubt information and communication technology has major role in every field of life. The Internet has become popular and it totally changes the life of people because it provides information about every field of daily life. Now a day’s mostly healthcare organizations are introducing new way for communication and efficient work flow for making good relationship with patients and with other organizations of same domain. To achieve this, there is need of information system which focuses only on the main idea of information logistic i.e., right information at the right time and at right location.
According to [14] the Internet has become the major platform for getting of information about health and daily routine of life. We can get the information of every aspect of life even the particular information of diseases and other important information about health. For the healthcare point of view, there is need of mature information system that provides context sensitive and personalized information. The information provided by the system should be relevant to the need and in time. To achieve this there is need of intelligent information system. Any intelligent system must deal with content, time and communication management. Main role of information logistic that it creates a link among passive and active supply modes i.e., it push information according to user query. So for intelligent system, information logistic application is must.

Information logistic approach in healthcare

According to main idea of Information Logistic is to provide the right information at the right time and at right location. This main concept leads to distribution of information to right user according to situation. This concept has high importance in healthcare domain. To provide right information at right time, there is need of sources a ―health database‖ which provide right information according to the situation and for location point of view where information need at ward or emergency ward. This information will be only valuable when it is on time. No doubt any information logistical application deal with a content, time and communication management.
According to [16] if we explain some moments of ward then we can guess that what importance of information logistic in healthcare domain is. An early morning a short discussion takes place among day duty nurse and night duty nurse for some time, in this discussion night duty nurse tells about patient’s conditions during their duty. This discussion contains some contents which are important for further treatment. [16][13]

Personalize healthcare system

There is need of information system which handles the all situation of healthcare e.g., before during and after medical treatment. There is need of patient information system based on main idea of information logistic. Any application related to patient contains different type of information. First of all information is collected, to achieve consistency this information is edited and then put this information into database.
Secondly, there is need of filtering because patient profile contains different type of information e.g., diagnosis, planned treatment, condition, knowledge, medication and experiences. So any related person can check the information according to their relevancy from the database. If any person falls in a disease then at beginning he faces a lot of problem because he does not know basic information of disease and he also has to learn about new behaviour patterns of everyday life. After sometime mostly patients become expert about their disease which supports them in illness [14][15]

HEALTHCARE ACTIVITIES

Today there is big need to make the hospital efficient, for this there is a need of Hospital Information System which provides the necessary medical information about patient and basic treatment information about diseases. With the implementation of Information system, there is possibility of efficient treatment of patients with fewer budgets. For fast treatment of patients there is also need of time management system which would be part of above Information System and it provides the information about treatment plan according to time line. According to usability point of view the main user of this system is the doctors and nurses.
So the medical staff can get information about treatment and can give quick response to patient. No doubt in any Healthcare organization, there are lots of activities some are performed individually and some are in a medical team. For better care of patient there is need for close collaboration among medical staff and for this, medical ward is a basic component at which almost all activities are evolves.
In any Healthcare, ward round is a main activity. During ward round collaboration among different actors are must because it is a central point in clinical healthcare. Most of decision about patient for further treatment, examinations and laboratory are made during or after the ward round. The ward round activities are vary according to country, hospital and even doctor. Ward round work flow and collaboration process totally depends on organization.

Ward round

The ward round is main component of any healthcare organization. This is only event when doctor meet the patient face to face for treatment purpose. Everyday a team of one doctor and two nurses round the ward for patient treatment. This ward round take place in two ways, a team visits the ward and another way is, a team sits in the discussion room and patient comes one by one. This discussion with patient is about recent treatment against illness and also about future treatment. This is the time when doctor take important decision about patient treatment plan.
Normally ward round scenario mainly depend on the organization and it almost vary country to country, hospital to hospital and even doctor to doctor. So work flow of ward round totally relies on individual style. Once the doctor writes prescription about patient, then it is duty of nurse, to give the medicine to patient at right time according to prescription content in a proper way.

work flow in ward round

According to [16] before start the ward round, nurses make sure that all related document must be collected about examinations and laboratory. During ward round doctor asks different questions from the nurses for getting information about status and examinations about patient. When doctor visits the patient, first doctor asks the status of patient from the nurse, if patient is unknown then visiting doctor views the whole file to acquire information about patient. If the patient is known, then doctor only views recent report and findings. New information about patient is always created during the ward. If there is need of new examination or laboratory test, it is always decided during the ward round. During ward round the nurse note the information through hand writing notes. After ward round, this information is entered in the database. Mostly the information of examinations and X-ray is entered by the specialist doctors.

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Problem in ward rounds

The time and content are two important issues in any healthcare organization. According to information logistic these two issues have high importance. In term of time, the ward round and future treatment plan is closely optimized with time. There is no doubt, entering data into database before and after ward round have high importance, and time is required for these activities. [14] Normally highly sensible data is entered by responsible doctor. If the responsible doctor delays to enter the data into database system then nurses have to wait until doctor does not do that. Due to this delay there are so many negative affects about treatment of patient. So the information should be on time and must be accurate. [16]
To achieve the accuracy, the information entering process must be fault smooth. First there is always a reliable method to identifying the patient. So the entered information must be relative to related patient. Secondly doctor must enforce to nurse for write information on paper sheet about patient during ward round and further entered the computer. Before entering data into database, the nurses make ensure the information is correct. [14]
Finally there must be an authorize regulations on database with respect to nurses, doctors and specialist doctors. If anybody put the wrong information into database about treatment plan or result of examination then its consequence may be a death of the patient. So the right information at right time may be alive of any patient and wrong information on any result into death of patient. [18] [16]

Benefits of a time management

Best time management in any hospital provides a better solution of above problems which provide better identification of patient and easy way to enter information into system. According to [16] a computer system provides a solution of problem which is mention above. It also provide an easy collaboration way. According to new solution all document for any patients are kept electronically so doctor can view any information at any time. Also new information created during ward round is also entered database directly. This information is pet because it is entered with the collaboration of nurses and doctors. Due to this facility, there is no need to make notes during the ward round. [18] According to [16] we have to design actual work flow in ward round with respect to different situations. Then efficient collaboration among doctors and nurses are required. To gain above discussed issue, there is need to focus on these activities: getting access patient data, reaching individual findings, organizing a laboratory analysis and organizing an examination. No doubt, there are other activities in the ward round but above mentioned activities are main activities and others are related to these.
This section of theoretical background explains methodology for ontology development. Basically this thesis is related to time aspects, so it explains the time ontology and also important ontology development steps which we used for producing result.

Methontology

This method of ontology development was developed at the Polytechnic University of Madrid. Basically this methodology has frame work which enables the development of ontology at knowledge level. It contains the ontology development process, a complete life cycle for prototypes, and specific way to carry out each activity.
This methodology is best for the ontology development and it is suitable for this thesis domain. According to this approach, author follows the complete cycle of ontology development process and specific way to carry out each activity. [2] This methodology frame contains following process:

Ontology Development Process (ODP)

The main aim of this ODP is to tell us that which activity performs at which time and about its outcomes during the process. It is essential to identify these activities when you doing ontology development. You should arrange a correct and complete team with full reliability. There are three essential activities categories, which are as below. [3] [2]

Table of contents :

1 Introduction
1.1 BACKGROUND
1.2 PROBLEM
1.3 PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES
1.4 LIMITATIONS
1.5 THESIS OUTLINE
2 Theoretical Background
2.1 THE INFORMATION LOGISTICS CONCEPT
2.1.1 Information logistic approach in healthcare
2.1.2 Personalize healthcare system
2.2 HEALTHCARE ACTIVITIES
2.2.1 Ward round
2.3 ONTOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
2.3.1 Methontology
2.3.2 Importance of an ontology development
2.3.3 Steps of ontology development
2.3.4 Temporal Ontology and Pattern
3 Methods
3.1 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
3.2 CONSTRUCTIVE RESEARCH METHOD
3.2.1 Relevant problem
3.2.2 Theoretical knowledge
3.2.3 Construct a solution or design
3.2.4 Testing/Evaluation
3.2.5 Show theoretical connections and research contribution
3.2.6 Examine the scope of applicability
3.3 BASIC RESEARCH MODELS
3.3.1 Workshop
3.3.2 Interview
3.4 ANALYSIS FOR DEVELOPMENT METHOD
3.5 ONTOLOGY DEVELOPMENT METHOD
3.5.1 Specify domain and scope of ontology
3.5.2 Reusing of Ontologies
3.5.3 Terms uses in Ontology
3.5.4 Classes and the class hierarchy
3.5.5 Define the properties of classes
3.5.6 Defining restrictions on properties
3.5.7 Create instances
3.5.8 Evaluation
4 Results
4.1 ANALYSIS OF MODELING WORKSHOP AND INTERVIEW
4.1.1 Exact Time Point Activities
4.1.2 Whole Time Interval Activities
4.1.3 Fussy Time Point Activities
4.1.4 Instant Activities
4.2 ACTIVITIES OF A WARD
4.2.1 Patient admitted activities
4.2.2 Day shift
4.2.3 Evening shift
4.2.4 Examination activities
4.2.5 Refreshment activities
4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE TIME ONTOLOGY AND TIME PATTERN
4.4 ONTOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR HEALTHCARE
4.4.1 Specification
4.4.2 Ontology reuse
4.4.3 List of Terms of Time Apect Model
4.4.4 Taxonomies of the Time Apects for a Healthcare Organization
4.5 IMPLEMENTATION / REALIZATION OF MODEL IN ONTOLOGY
4.5.1 Classes and Disjoint Classes for Healthcare Organization
4.5.2 Explanation of Ontological Model of Time Aspects
4.5.3 Important Roles of a Healthcare Organization
4.5.4 Properties of Ontological Model of Time Aspects
4.5.5 Evaluation of Time Aspect Model
5 Conclusion and Future Work
5.1 CONCLUSION
5.2 FUTURE WORK
6 References

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