Career Pathing and Development

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CHAPTER TWO: JOB DESCRIPTION SIGNIFICANCE

INTRODUCTION

Various organisations struggle to compile and update JDs, also known as employment contracts, for this is a tedious and complex process. Nevertheless, if an organisation maintains the JDs as up-to-date, living employment contracts, it may use considerably less time, and prevent headaches and stress. JDs are not just another paper exercise,but phenomenally significant if used to their greatest potential. A well-compiled JD builds a critical foundation so that the employee can comprehend what to convey to the organisation. Various organisations do not value the countless uses of JDs and it is imperative to instantly understand the practical significance of JDs. Chapter Two will concentrate on a more comprehensive picture and the precise meaning of JDs. It will provide a synopsis on the critical overview of the JD, fiercely debate the way JDs are portrayed, define the rationale for JDs, provide the purpose of the JD employment contract, and explain and highlight the unknown value of JDs to the organisation, employer, and employee. This chapter will also explain challenges connected to JDs, and the value chain JDs inevitably bringing to the organisational HRP. Thereafter, international best practices to develop elegant and organised JDs and the coordination and monitoring of the JD will be discussed. The format and design of the JD in the SAPS towards effective police performance will also be explored.

THE PORTRAYAL OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS

Blank (2017) states that a JD presents an accurate picture to serve as a concise meaning of a specific occupation within a governing body. It sufficiently details the dominant features of the job, how to effectively do the specific tasks required, and the essential abilities needed to perform the job professionally. It is not merely a critical analysis of the job, but it involves addressing potential questions of future employees in this position (Wolfe 2018). As per Jones (2015), JDs are much more than an employment tool and are foundational to the talent management programme of the organisation. According to Kratt (2011), a JD produces the foundation to develop interview questions, conduct performance assessments, define objectives, implement compensation increments, and develop career paths. Employing the appropriate employees in accurate positions to perform official duties is vital to organisational success. Armstrong and Taylor (2014:604) outline that a JD reflects the responsibilities that the job holders should exercise. A JD is more concerned with tasks than desired results, and with the obligations to achieve the organisational requirements. In addition, Sostrin (2013:16) considers a JD as an exceptional employment contract to portray job responsibilities, specific tasks, reporting structure, and work environments, and a document to guide responsibility. According to Fine and Getkate (1995:229), the JD is a worded statement that describes and strikingly illustrates a coherent picture of the specific tasks, task outputs, job requirements, reporting structure, and job salary. It progressively extends key priorities professionally involved and portrays a graphic picture of where the potential candidate fits into the organisation. Longenecker, Petty, Palich and Hoy (2013:538) agree that a JD represents an imperative worded statement, illustrating where the employment fits into the organisational structure, displaying job purpose, and uniquely specifying the primary responsibility and obligations of the position. Nickson (2013:93) outlines that a JD is a valuable employment contract to trace the prime motivation behind the employment and outlines the job purpose, specific tasks, official duties, responsibilities, performance goals, and the reporting relationships. Wilkinson and Johnstone (2016:229) define a JD as a composed proclamation clearing up why the specific occupation exists, what the job occupant does precisely, and under what specific conditions. The WorldatWork Organisation (2015) reasons that a JD summarises duties and obligations that focus on specific competencies required to execute the job professionally. Erasmus and Schenk (2008:486) see a JD as an essential HRP to powerfully build up the employee and organisational professionalism.A JD represents an analysis of the job, illustrates organisational placement, and formulates answers for the official job.

JOB DESCRIPTION RATIONALE

Rationale means reasonable and logical actions to realistically achieve remarkable things based on philosophical logic, as opposed to impulse. For the successful rationale and effective functioning of an organisation, the employee’s visible presence is absolutely crucial (Kenexa 2011). According to Wilkinson, Hislop and Coupland (2016:16), to meet organisational effectiveness means the entire organisation should interrelate and work collaboratively; it is significant to forcibly impose high-quality organisational moral standards and official policies. Bruce (2008) states that the first phase in inspiring employees is to make sure that the employees know what is expected of them as per their JDs and, therefore, it is a vital communication tool to instantly comprehend the main necessities of the specific job. The official JD employment contract convincingly demonstrates the proper place and specific demands of the job. Well-written JDs and continuing training in JD development can help to avoid wasted time and successfully support organisational goals, applicants, employees, and supervisors (Verboncu & Zeininger 2015:603). Blank (2017) concurs that JDs remain key assets to the organisation and direct supervisors and employees. Although Goel (2012:215) contends that a JD portrays the job and not the job holder.

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Purpose of a Job Description Contract

A JD employment contract determines the organisational link between the role players and not the specific name of the employee in the job (Potgieter 2014). JDs are basic to an organisation and vital to outline the essential parts of a local job (Cummings & Worley 2014:413). According to Alabdelkarim, Muftah and Hodgson (2014:25), JDs serve as an essential objective if the organisation is to achieve its vision, mission, goals, strategies, and rules, and thereby enhance operational efficiency, effectiveness and employee development. Bruce (2008) concurs that without a doubt, JDs force employees to align with the organisational goals, mission, and vision. HRPs manage and accept a vital part of authoritative organisational professionalism. A JD prescribes the expected moral standards, successful performance, and moral responsibilities to perform effectively in a particular job (Kenexa 2011). It intimately links specific job assignments and necessary prerequisites that are a key part of an organisation’s strategy, ultimate goals, habits, and unique culture (Dara 2013). The organisational policing style serves as an explicit image of the organisational culture and excessively influences the local community. The existence of JDs in the organisation’s workplace also contributes to the organisational culture of police-style (Swallow 2011).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY DECLARATION
ABSTRACT 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
DEDICATION 
ABBREVIATIONS
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL ORIENTATION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 
1.3 RESEARCH AIM
1.4 RESEARCH PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.6 THEORETICAL CONCEPTS 
1.6.1 Job Description
1.6.2 Performance Management
1.6.3 Service Delivery
1.7 RESEARCH VALUE
1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS
1.8.1 Chapter Two: Job Description Significance
1.8.2 Chapter Three: Legal and Regulatory Framework of Job Descriptions
1.8.3 Chapter Four: Research Methodology
1.8.4 Chapter Five: Presentation of the Study Findings
1.8.5 Chapter Six: A Reflection on the Findings and Literature
1.8.6 Chapter Seven: Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
1.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER TWO: JOB DESCRIPTION SIGNIFICANCE 
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 THE PORTRAYAL OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS
2.3 JOB DESCRIPTION RATIONALE
2.3.1 Purpose of a Job Description Contract
2.3.2 Job Description: Value to the Organisation
2.3.3 Job Description: Value to the Employer
2.3.4 Job Description: Value to the Employee
2.4 JOB DESCRIPTION CHALLENGES
2.5 THE VALUE JOB DESCRIPTIONS BRING TO HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES
2.5.1 Career Pathing and Development
2.5.2 Compensation Management
2.5.3 Education, Training and Development
2.5.4 Human Resource Planning
2.5.5 Labour Relations
2.5.6 Organisational Development
2.5.7 Performance Management
2.5.8 Personnel Management
2.5.9 Recruitment and Selection
2.6 COORDINATE AND MONITOR JOB DESCRIPTIONS TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT
2.6.1 International Best Practices to Develop Job Descriptions
2.6.2 Responsibility to Develop a Job Description
2.6.3 Every Employee should have a Job Description
2.6.4 Amend and Maintain Job Descriptions
2.6.5 Skills to Develop a Job Description
2.6.6 Performing Duties and Tasks outside the Job Description
2.6.7 Evaluation of Job Descriptions in the SAPS
2.6.8 Computer System Access to Job Description Information
2.6.9 South African Police Service Intranet
2.7 JOB DESCRIPTION FORMAT
2.7.1 Job Information Summary
2.7.2 Job Title
2.7.3 Job Level
2.7.4 Organisational Placement and Structure
2.7.5 Purpose of the Job
2.7.6 Key Performance Areas and Tasks
2.7.7 Job Requirements
2.7.8 Job Description Employment Agreement
2.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY.
CHAPTER THREE: THE LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 BACKGROUND OF THE JOB DESCRIPTION EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT
3.3 THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
3.4 LABOUR RELATIONS ACT 
3.5 EMPLOYMENT EQUITY ACT
3.6 BASIC CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT ACT
3.7 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT
3.8 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ACT
3.9 SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICE ACT
3.9.1 South African Police Service Employment Regulations
3.9.2 Overview Functions and Achievements of the South African Police Service
3.9.3 South African Police Service Human Resource Annual Operational Plan
3.10 PUBLIC SERVICE REGULATIONS
3.11 LEGAL COMPLIANCE AND PRINCIPLES 
3.12 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 PHILOSOPHICAL WORLDVIEWS
4.3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
4.3.1 Qualitative Research Design
4.3.2 Research Methodology
4.4 POPULATION AND SAMPLING METHOD
4.4.1 Study Geography
4.4.2 Study Population
4.4.3 Sampling
4.4.4 Selection of Participants
4.5 DATA COLLECTION
4.5.1 Individual Semi-Structured Interviews
4.5.2 Focus Group Interviews
4.6 DATA ANALYSIS 
4.7 TRUSTWORTHINESS OF THE STUDY
4.7.1 Credibility
4.7.2 Transferability
4.7.3 Dependability
4.7.4 Conformability
4.8 ETHICAL RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS 
4.8.1 University of South Africa’s Policy on Research Ethics
4.8.2 South African Police Service National Instruction on Research
4.8.3 Additional Ethical Considerations
4.8.4 Researcher’s Background
4.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER FIVE: PRESENTATION OF THE STUDY FINDINGS 
5.1 INTRODUCTION.
5.2 THEME 1: VALUE AND BENEFITS OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS 
5.2.1 Job Description Protects the Employee and the Organisation
5.2.2 Job Descriptions Communicate Employees’ Roles in the Organisation
5.2.3 Employment Contract to Protect the Employee against Unfair Labour.
5.3 THEME 2: PROCESSES TO COORDINATE AND MONITOR JOB DESCRIPTIONS TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT 
5.3.1 Yearly Process with Sequence of Steps to Check and Monitor Job Descriptions
5.3.2 PERSAP Compliance Inspection and Training
5.3.3 Regulatory Directives for Developing Job Descriptions
5.3.4 Responsibility for the Development of the Generic Job Descriptions
5.4 THEME 3: POTENTIAL OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS TO ENHANCE POLICE PERFORMANCE
5.4.1 Job Description Roles in the Enhancement of SAPS Performance
5.4.2 The Communication of Job Descriptions to Members is Essential for Professionalism
5.5 THEME 4: KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR DESIGNING JOB DESCRIPTIONS
5.5.1 Knowledge of the Environment
5.5.2 Knowledge of the existence of the Job Description
5.5.3 Computer Literacy and Research Skills
5.5.4 Communication Skills and Training Proficiency
5.6 THEME 5: ATTITUDES, EXPERIENCES, AND CHALLENGES OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS
5.6.1 Attitudes towards Job Descriptions
5.6.2 Negative Attitude due to Not Being Informed on the Role of Job Descriptions
5.6.3 Changes in the Structure of Human Resource Management
5.6.4 Human Resource Office Uninformed and Confused about Job Titles
5.6.5 Service Terminations without Changes on the System
5.6.6 Employees Perform Duties and Tasks outside their Job Descriptions
5.7 THEME 6: RECOMMENDATIONS OF ELECTRONIC JOB
DESCRIPTION SYSTEMS 
5.7.1 South African Police Service Intranet
5.7.2 Personnel System for the South African Police Service
5.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER SIX: A REFLECTION ON THE FINDINGS AND THE LITERATURE
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 VALUE AND BENEFITS OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS
6.2.1 Job Description Protects the Employee and the Organisation
6.2.2 Job Descriptions Communicate Employees’ Roles in the
Organisation
6.2.3 Employment Contract to Protect Employee against Unfair Labour
6.3 PROCESSES TO COORDINATE AND MONITOR JOB DESCRIPTIONS TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT
6.3.1 Yearly Process with Sequence of Steps to Check and Monitor Job Descriptions
6.3.2 PERSAP Compliance Inspection and Training
6.3.3 Regulatory Directives for Developing Job Descriptions
6.3.4 Responsibility for the Development of the Generic Job Descriptions .
6.4 POTENTIAL OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS TO ENHANCE POLICE PERFORMANCE 
6.4.1 Job Description Roles in the Enhancement of SAPS Performance
6.4.2 The Communication of Job Descriptions to Members is Essential for Professionalism
6.5 KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR DESIGNING JOB DESCRIPTIONS
6.5.1 Knowledge of the Environment
6.5.2 Knowledge of the existence of the Job Description
6.5.3 Computer Literacy and Research Skills
6.5.4 Communication Skills and Training Proficiency
6.6 ATTITUDES, EXPERIENCES, AND CHALLENGES OF JOB
DESCRIPTIONS
6.6.1 Attitudes towards Job Descriptions
6.6.2 Negative Attitude Due to Not Being Informed on Role of Job
Descriptions.
6.6.3 Changes in the Structure of Human Resource Management
6.6.4 Human Resource Office Uninformed and Confused on Job Titles
6.6.5 Service Terminations without Changes on the System
6.6.6 Employees Perform Duties and Tasks Outside their Job Description
6.7 RECOMMENDATIONS OF ELECTRONIC JOB DESCRIPTION SYSTEMS
6.7.1 South African Police Service Intranet
6.7.2 Personnel System for the South African Police Service
6.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 STUDY SUMMARY
7.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
7.3.1 Recommendations to Assist Employees to Comprehend Job
Descriptions
7.3.2 Recommendations to Improve Job Descriptions
7.3.3 Recommendations to Monitor Job Descriptions
7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
7.5 CONCLUSION 
REFERENCE LIST

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