CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design of the study. The followingwere considered when planning for this current research study. (i) The research design and methods of research for the study(ii) the population and participation sample for the study (iii) choice of appropriate instrument for the study(iv) validity, and reliability of the instruments chosen for the study(v)data collection and data analysis (vi)trustworthiness (vii) ethical consideration. In addition, this chapter discusses the procedure adopted for data collection, the statistical tools used for data analysisand why a mixed method design approach (Creswell, 2010; Creswell, 2013) was considered appropriate for the study.The chapter concludes with a summary.
The study followed a pre-test, post-test non-equivalent quasi-experimental group design (Creswell, 2013). The choice of this design method allows investigation of intact groups in real-life classroom settings since it was not easy to randomly assemble students for any intervention during school hours so as to avoid any artificial conditions. The design is typically easier to set up than true experimental designs but lacks randomization of the subjects (Creswell, 2013; Shadish, Cook & Campbell, 2002).
The design is appropriate for this study because it reduces the interactive effect of treatment and increases the external validity of the findings (Creswell & Plano, 2011). The choice of a quasi-experimental quantitative research design for the study also allowed the researcher to assign participants randomly, to either the experimental or the control group in order to control extraneous variables that might influence the relationship. Participants did not have any control over which of the groups they should belong or not belong in receiving the treatment. The quasi-independent variable-instructional strategy was manipulated at two levels (CAI and TM) to provide answers to the research questions raised for the study in order to assess the extent to which the CAI and TM have influenced students’ achievement and attitude to the concept of latitude and longitude in both the control and experimental groups as stated in research objectives 1, 2,3and 4 of the study (see section 1.9& section 1.10).
The research design is symbolically presented below:
N 1:O1X1 O2 Experimental Group I (CAI)
N 2:O1 O2 Control Group II (traditional method)
The first row represents the experimental group. The second is the control group. O1, O2, represent pre-test and post-test; X1 represents the treatment and O1 and O2, were tested for statistical significance, using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).
In addition, aqualitative research design that allows the researcher to observe, converses, and interviews participants to gather information, words and pictures for analysis and constructs a holistic representation of the whole situation was adopted (Plano & Creswell, 2010). The qualitative methodis subjective and reveals the opinion and feelings of the participants as stated in research objective 5 of the study (See Section1.9& Section1.10). A central phenomenon in qualitative research study is the key concept, idea, or process (Creswell, 2013). Qualitative data was collected from the participants through the following sources: semi-structured interviews with students and selected teachers, classroom observations and spontaneous conversations. These contain general questions that participants were expected to answer (see Appendix 4&Appendix 5).
In the first place, the choice of the qualitative method to answer research question five (5) in the study, using semi-structured interviews with students and selected teachers was to provide a platform to record and documentation of events under study (Merriam, 1997). Second, the qualitative method of enquiry provides a comprehensive description of phenomenon of the CAI intervention that is being studied and gives insight into hidden factors that interplay within the content of the study (see Section 4.5& section 4.6). The choice of the qualitative method is considered appropriate for the study because the pattern of the design was tailored to the needs of the study. For instance, the semi structured interview protocol serves the purpose of reminding the researcher of the questions, and provides a means for recording notes (Creswell, 2013). It contains instructions for the process of the interview; questions to be asked and the space to take note of the responses from the interview (see Appendix 4&5).
The use of both quantitative and qualitative methods in combination for this study is to provide a better understanding of the research problem and question than either method by itself (Creswell, 2013). A mixed-methods research approach is a procedure for collecting, analysing, and “mixing” both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or a series of studies to understand a research problem (Creswell, Plano Clerk, 2011).The phase one of this study was the quantitative study and included independent variables (test1) pre-test scores, and the dependent variable intervention (test 2). Phase two was the qualitative study and involved semi-structured interviews for selected students and teachers, as well as classroom observations.
Several reasons have been advanced for using the mixed-methods research design in a study (Creswell, 2013; Miles & Huberman, 1994). First, mixed-methods research is an appropriate design to use if one seeks to build on the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative data. Second, the use of both quantitative and qualitative data together provides a better understanding of the research problem than either type by itself.
Third, the combination of both quantitative and qualitative data produces a very powerful mix (Creswell, 2011). Quantitative data, such as scores on an instrument, yields specific numbers that can be statistically analysed and produces results in assessing and describing the frequency and magnitude of trends about a large number of people. Whereas, qualitative data, such as semi-structured interviews and classroom observations, produces the actual words people offer from different perspectives on the topic; this combination provides a complex picture of the situation (Creswell, Plano Clerk, 2011).Furthermore, the use of a mixed-methods research design is useful when one type of research (quantitative or qualitative) is inadequate to address the research problems or to answer the research questions stated for a study.The decision to adopt the mixed-methods design supported the claims of other researchers (e.g. De Villiers, 2005b; Dhlamini, 2012; Kalanda, 2012) that the integration of the quantitative and qualitative approach in a study is not mutually exclusive but rather effective and complementary.
In thisresearch work, threats to internal validity such as history, maturation, statistical regression, and experimental mortality, interaction with selection, instrumentation and design contamination were controlled by the researcher (Shadish, Cook&Campbell, 2002; Wimmer&Dominic, 2000). Internal validity refers to the validity of inferences drawn about the cause and effect relationship between the independent variable, while external validity refers to the validity of the cause and effect relationship as generalized to other persons, setting, treatment variables and measures. Threat to internal validity poses problems in drawing correct inferences about whether the variation (i.e. the variation in one variable contributes to the variation in the other variable) between the presumed treatment variable and the outcome reflects a causal relationship (Creswell, 2013; Creswell&Plano, 2011; Plano&Creswell, 2010; Shadish, Cook&Campbell, 2002; Merriam, 1997).The following were ensured in controlling possible threats to internal validity in the research work.
First, the topic used as an intervention in the study (latitude and longitude) was in line with the WASCE mathematics curriculum. In addition, there was no urgent need for a review of the curriculum that could have brought about any change in the dependent variable of achievement in longitude and latitude (ATLL) and students’ attitude to the concept. Furthermore, there was no immediate external examination that could distract students from full participation in the study. Both groups experienced a stable environment throughout the treatment period, hence controlling the possible effect of history in the study. Second, students in both the control and experimental groups were mature. They had all grown up within the same society, and passed through similar social, cultural and physiological stages of development that could have affected the dependent variable thus controlling any possible effect of maturation in the study. Besides this, they had gained the confidence required to participate in the study having been taught some aspects of plane and solid geometry in their first year at senior secondary school.
In the third place, students’ pre-test scores in both experimental and control groups revealed that they had not received any instruction on the topic before this time either through vacation or lesson classes that could have led to the advantage of any student in any of the groups (see Tables 4.10 &4.11). In the fourth instance, in both the experimental and control schools, students were allowed to participate willingly considering the similarities of their characteristics in terms of age, class, exposure to the mathematics curriculum, language, criteria for selection and placement. Participants were randomly assigned to either of the groups without having control on where they wanted to belong or receive instruction that could have brought a change in the dependent variable thus controlling the possible effect of interaction with selection in the study.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1:Background of the study
1.2:Categories of teaching approach in education
1.3: Traditional versus cai method of teaching
1.4: CAI and subject combination
1.5: Students’ attitude to mathematics learning
1.6: Gender issues in mathematics learning
1.7: Statement of the problem
1.8: Motivation for the study
1.9: Objectives of the study
1.10: Research questions
1.11: Research hypotheses
1.12: Significance of the study
1.13: Scope and limitations of the study
1.14: Summary of the chapter
1.15: Structure of the thesis
1.16: Operational Definitions of terms
CHAPTER TWO Theoretical Background
2.1: Theoretical framework of the study
2.2: Theories of learning and CAI
2.3: Relevance of the theories
2.4: Critics of the theories
2.5: Background of longitude and latitude
2.6: Mathematics of longitude and latitude
2.7: Description of computer assisted instruction
2.8: Past studies on CAI
2.9: Challenges and criteria for CAI implementation in Nigerian schools
2.10: Conclusion and summary of the chapter
CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology
3.1: Research Design
3.2: Population for the study
3.3: Sample and sampling procedure
3.4: Research Instruments
3.5:Validity of the Instruments
3.6: Reliability of the instruments
3.7: Data collection
3.8: Data Analysis
3.9: Ethical Consideration
3.10: Summary of the Chapter
CHAPTER FOUR Findings
4.0: Quantitative findings
4.1. Pilot study results
4.2: Main study
4.3: Summary of quantitative data analysis
4.4: Conclusion of phase 1: quantitative research
4.5: Phase 2: Qualitative findings
4.6: Analysis of semi-structured interviews
4.7: Summary of themes of students’ interview questions
4.8: Summary of themes of teachers’ interview questions
4.9: Results from classroom observations
4.10: Integration of phase 1 and phase 2 findings
4.11: Summary of the chapter
CHAPTER FIVE Discussion of results/Findings
5.1Summary of study
5.2: Discussion of findings in term of research questions and hypotheses
5.3: Implications of the findings to educational practice
CHAPTER SIX Conclusion and Recommendations
6.1: Limitations of the study
6.3: Suggestions for further studies
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
EFFECT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT ANDATTITUDE TOWARDS LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA