CHURCH MUSIC AS CULTURAL AND INTER-CULTURAL MUSIC 

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SITUATION WITHIN THE DRC

For many decades the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) had only one official hymnbook, namely the APGB, which earliest roots could be traced back to the Psalms of Datheen (1566). This hymnal first saw the light in 1814 and had various reprints, but for many years it remained the only official songbook of the DRC. At the beginning of this decade (2001), it was replaced by the Liedboek van die Kerk (LBK). Kruger (2007:17), with reference to the latter, remarks correctly: “Vir sommige mense was die veranderinge ‘te veel en te gou’ en vir ander weer ‘te min en te laat’”. Many different songs and songbooks were used alongside the Psalm & Gesange in course of time, but without the official approval and sanction of the DRC. In this regard the Halleluja-hymnal (HAL), Jeugsangbundel I (JSB I) and Jeugsangbundel II (JSB II) as well as a multitude of informal hymnals and free songs, need to be mentioned. In many congregations the use of these songs and collections of songs were limited to informal meetings, youth meetings, special occasions and evening services; in others they were sung within the worship service.
Often these songs were labeled as charismatic, of poor musical standard and not fit for use in official meetings and gatherings. For many years they existed alongside the Psalms and Gesange, but congregations were not allowed to sing these songs in worship services, as they were not part of the official repertoire. In this regard Du Toit (1990:91) states that “[d]ie bedoeling van die Jeugsangbundel (1984) was van die begin af duidelik in die voorwoord uitgespel (vergelyk ook die Algemene Sinode, 1982:264 en 1340; Strydom, 1984b:37-38) naamlik dat dit nie vir gebruik in die erediens of kategeseskool beskikbaar gestel word nie. Die Psalm- en Gesangeboek bly die enigste offisiële liedereboek van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk.” Many congregations started composing their own unofficial hymnbooks, containing a repertoire of songs that was deer and acceptable to them and singable in various situations. The youth often gathered in meetings where they could sing other songs than the songs published in the official hymnbook. ‘Other’ songs were ofte sung on camps and youth conventions, and in most cases with other instruments like the guitar and the piano. These ‘other’ songs were often sung at home during family devotions, as well as at prayer-meetings during the period of Pentecost. Du Toit (1990:92) observes the same phenomenon in the Netherlands: “In Nederland is sedert die 16de eeu allerlei sangbundels buite sowel as binne die erediens gebruik – en dit ten spyte van herhaalde beperkende besluite”. Many people left the traditional churches (including the DRC) for a ‘better’ experience of singing in other (often the Charismatic) churches.
Why do members of the church feel a need to sing these songs that are not part of the official collection of songs in the DRC? Why did this phenomenon exist in the DRC from its earliest roots? Why did the topic of music become such an issue in the DRC and many other churches? Although this study is mainly concerned with the DRC in South Africa, it must be admitted that this phenomenon became an issue in many churches (Long 2001:1).
In the Roman Catholic Church for example, the decisions of the Second Vatican Council regarding liturgical music (Sacrosanctum Concilium, promulgated on Des. 4, 1963) led to a polarization between “those who interpreted the document as a call for new approaches and those who interpreted it as a reaffirmation of traditional musical practices” (Kubicki 1999:6).

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 
1. Background of the problem
2. Situation within the DRC
3. Relevance of study
4. Review of literature
5. Research problem
6. Research question
7. Theoretical framework
7.1 Bricolage liturgy
7.2 Implications of bricolage liturgy
7.3 Critical reflection on bricolage liturgy
7.4 Liturgical profits of bricolage liturgy
7.5 Liturgy, culture and spirituality
7.6 Margins of bricolage liturgical singing
7.7 Conclusion
8. Approach to Practical Theology
8.1 Implications for this study
9. Approach to hymnology
9.1 Implications for this study
10. Goal formulation
11. Working hypothesis
12. Structure of study
13. Commitments
14. Abbreviations
15. Terminology
15.1 Music
15.2 Singing
15.3 Church singing and church song
15.4 Church music
15.5 Liturgical singing and music
15.6 Congregational singing
15.7 Hymn
15.8 Hymnody
15.9 Free song
15.10 Contextual song
15.11 Worship service
CHAPTER 2: BASIC CONTEMPORARY LITURGICAL THEORY 
1. The worship service
1.1 Latreia
1.2 Liturgy
2. Roots of the worship service
2.1 Old Testament
2.1.1 The Temple
2.1.2 The Synagogues
2.2 New Testament
3. Characteristics of the worship service
4. The worship service and daily life
4.1 Liturgy as a meeting of God’s family
4.2 Liturgy as remembering
4.3 Liturgy as diakonia
4.4 A liminal liturgy?
4.5 Implications
5. Motives for worship service
5.1 Scriptural motive
5.2 Ecumenical motive
5.3 Confessional motive
5.4 Pastoral motive
5.5 Reconciliation motive
5.6 Missional motive
5.7 Conclusions
6. Motives for liturgical singing
6.1 Scriptural motive for liturgical singing
6.1.1 Singing and music is an integral part of Scripture
6.1.1.1 Part of the worship of Israel
6.1.1.2 The Bible contain some songs
6.1.1.3 Some parts of the Bible are written in the form of a song.
6.1.1.4 The Bible contains some verses that give us information about the way singing was done in Biblical times.
6.1.1.5 The Bible also gives guidelines or principles on singing (in church)
6.1.1.5.1 Colossians 3:16-17
6.1.1.5.1.1 Guidelines from Colossians 3:16-17
6.1.1.5.2 Ephesians 5:19
6.1.1.5.2.1 Guidelines from Colossians 3 and Ephesians 5
6.1.1.5.3 1 Corinthians 14
6.1.1.5.3.1 Guidelines from 1 Cor 14:2
6.1.1.5.4 James 5:13
6.1.1.5.4.1 Guidelines from James 5:13
6.1.1.6 Conclusions
6.1.2 Liturgical singing and the Covenant (Strydom 1991:188)
6.2 Ecumenical motive for liturgical singing
6.3 Confessional motive for liturgical singing
6.4 Pastoral motive for liturgical singing
6.5 Reconciliation motive for liturgical singing
6.6 Missional motive for liturgical singin
6.7 Implications
7. Liturgical singing as ritual
7.1 Implications
8. Liturgical singing as symbol
8.1 Implications
9.1 Implications
10. Function of liturgical singing
10.1 Implications
11. Influence of the ecumenical-liturgical movement of the twentieth century
12. Liturgy beyond the liturgical movement
13. Conclusion
CHAPTER 3: A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF CHURCH SINGING 
CHAPTER 4: CHURCH MUSIC AS CULTURAL AND INTER-CULTURAL MUSIC 
CHAPTER 5: SPIRITUALITY AS BASIC ELEMENT OF CHURCH MUSIC 
CHAPTER 6: EMPIRICAL STUDY 
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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