Classroom Teaching Observations

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Chapter Two Methods


Sylvia Ashton-Warner is credited with the development of „organic teaching‟ in Aotearoa New Zealand. She worked in rural areas populated by Māori people and taught the infant class. Ashton-Warner could be appended to the list of bilingual teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand. Like Ashton-Warner‟s, the methodology is rather an organic journey. The methodology section describes the teacher intervention, that is, what was observed during classroom teaching by linking to student data. The method descriptions include the participants, the development of the comprehension assessment and the data collection and analysis for student assessments and teaching instruction. The section commences by restating the three key questions pertaining to the profiling student of reading comprehension, teacher instruction, and strategic comprehension intervention. It is contained in five sections as follows:
 the participants, that is, Kura (schools), tauira (students), and kaiako (teachers);
 the comprehension assessment, that is, the texts, the sub-tasks and assessment criteria;
 comprehension instruction as described by teachers and observed in video recordings of classroom teaching at baseline and intervention;
 the intervention including the observed teacher exchanges, and ratings (including the reliability of inter-rater agreements); and,
 reporting to the Kura communities.
The methods for each section are described in conjunction with the contents and design for the section.

The Key Questions

The context for analysis was the collection of data from student assessments and observations of classroom teaching. The data collection occurred in two parts over two years. The first part was to collect student assessment data for Year three and Year four students and to simultaneously observe classroom teaching of comprehension in the classroom setting. The second part was collating and analysing the associations and links between the instructional data and student assessment data to begin to explore a one-year intervention of teacher professional development in comprehension instruction. Instructional data was filmed (by video) in planned classroom teaching observations. Student data was collected orally using the comprehension assessment developed for the research. Three key questions were explored. First, what are the patterns of achievement in
comprehension for Year three and Year four tauira in Māori language immersion settings? The question called for a description of the assessments available and in use in Aotearoa New Zealand and the analysis of the patterns of comprehension
achievement for tauira in Kura Kaupapa Māori contexts. The absence of a comprehension assessment measure for students‟ spoken (oral) te reo Māori meant the development of a preliminary measure for the study. However, it is noted that asTTLe pānui (reading and comprehension sub-task assessments) were available as pen and paper tasks. The second question related to kaiako comprehension instruction and tauira comprehension learning in Kura Kaupapa Māori contexts was:
How do kaiako teach comprehension in Kura contexts when using non-fiction Māori language texts? The question required the description and analysis of patterns of kaiako exchanges during the course of instruction in Kura contexts so that effective instruction (or otherwise) could be identified. The third question explored the development of kaiako professional knowledge about comprehension before, during and after instruction and the effect of a professional development intervention on increasing the effectiveness of instruction. What was the effect of the professional development on kaiako and on tauira? Kura Kaupapa Māori teachers have become accustomed to attending professional development out of Kura, often delivered in the English language with a focus on English-medium schooling. What would happen if they controlled their own professional learning at Kura, focused on te reo Māori as the medium of instruction for learning and teaching?

 Ethics Approval

The University of Auckland Human Ethics Committee approval (Reference 2003/388) for the research comprised of participant information and consent forms for Principals and Boards of Trustees, Parents/Guardians and teacher participants. The approval included a confidentiality agreement for transcribers. Clear statements regarding the security of consent forms and participant information, the project title, the researchers, explanation of the research, the consent and withdrawal process, privacy and confidentiality requirements, and restrictions regarding the future use of data. The contact address and phone number for the project leader were available. All relevant information was available in English language and te reo Māori texts.

READ  Pedagogy characterising academic and non-academic subjects

Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Part I
1.1.0 About the Writer 
1.1.1 The Title of the Thesis
1.1.2 The Geographical Parameters
1.1.3 The Themes
1.1.4 The Limitations of the Study
1.1.5 The Purpose of the Study
1.1.6 The Structure of the Thesis
1.1.7 The Findings
1.1.8 Definitions and Terms Used
1.1.9 The Use of Māori Vocabulary
Part II
1.2.0 Introduction 
1.2.1 The Key Questions
1.2.2 Comprehending the World of Words
1.2.3 The Passing Years
1.2.4 Reading Comprehension
1.2.5 A Reading Comprehension Definition for the Research
1.2.6 Theoretical Approaches to Reading Comprehension Development
1.2.7 Comprehension Models
1.2.8 Standardised Diagnostic Assessment Procedures
The Schools Entry Assessment (SEA) 
Running Records 
The Observation Survey (The Six-Year Net) 
Assessment Tools for Teaching and Learning (asTTle) 
Informal Prose Inventories 
Cloze Test
1.2.9 Comprehension Instruction
1.2.10 Instructional Variables and Instructional Strategies
Word recognition 
Prior Knowledge (Background Knowledge or Schema) 
1.2.11 Comprehension and Non-fiction Texts
1.2.12 Te Reo Māori Contexts and Reading Comprehension
1.2.13 Standardised Diagnostic Assessment Procedures in te reo Māori
1.2.14 Comprehension Instruction in te reo Māori in Kura
1.2.15 Comprehension Intervention in Kura Kaupapa Māori
1.2.16 A Kaupapa Māori Framework for the Research
Chapter Two 
2.1.0 The Key Questions 
2.1.1 Ethics Approval
2.1.1(a) The Research Advisory Group
2.1.1(b) Ngā Kura (The Schools)
2.1.1(c) Ngā Tauira (The Students)
2.1.1(d) Total Tauira Assessments
2.1.1(e) Ngā Kaiako (The Teachers)
2.1.1(f) The Research baseline and Intervention Time-line
2.1.2 The Non- Fiction Texts 
2.1.2(a) Reading Accuracy
2.1.2(b) The Comprehension Assessment
2.1.2(c) The Comprehension Sub-tasks
2.1.2(d) Sub-task Assessment Criteria and Scores
2.1.2(e) Revisions to the Comprehension Sub-tasks
2.1.3 Observations of Classroom Teaching 
2.1.3(a) Teacher Interviews and Discussions
Beginning the discussion 
Introducing Texts 
Vocabulary Focus 
Follow-up Activities 
Monitoring and Assessment 83
Professional Learning 83
2.1.3(b) Analysis of Teacher Data 83
2.1.3(c) Inter-rater Agreements 85
2.1.4 Reporting Baseline and Intervention Data to Kura Kaupapa Māori Communities
Chapter Three
The Results
Part I: Year Three 
3.1.0 Reading Accuracy
3.1.2 The Baseline Results (Time 1 and Time 2)
3.1.3 The Mean Scores
3.1.4 Mean Score Patterns by Comprehension Sub-task
3.1.5 Raw Scores by Kura
3.1.6 The Intervention (Time 3 and Time 4)
Part II: Year Four 
3.2.0 The Baseline Results (Time 1 and Time 2)
3.2.1 The Mean Scores
3.2.2 Mean Score Patterns by Comprehension Sub-task
3.2.3 Total Raw Scores by Kura 9
3.2.4 The Intervention Results (Time 3 and Time 4)
3.2.5 Mean Scores by Kura
3.2.6 The Longitudinal Aspects of the Study
Chapter Four
Ngā Kaiako
Part I: Kaiako Interviews and Discussion
4.1.0 Kaiako Participation
4.1.1 Teacher Changes
4.1.2 Kaiako Discussion Themes
4.1.3 Capturing the discussion
4.1.4 Beginning the discussion
4.1.5 Choosing texts
4.1.6 Previewing texts
4.1.7 Introducing texts
4.1.8 Predictions
4.1.9 Comprehension Focus
4.1.10 Vocabulary Focus
4.1.11 Follow-up Comprehension Activities
4.1.12 Comprehension Monitoring and Assessment
4.1.13 Comprehension and Te Reo Māori
4.1.14 Professional Learning
Part II: Classroom Teaching Observations
4.2.0 Rating the Texts
4.2.1 Coding Kaiako Exchanges
4.2.2 Rating and Scoring Kaiako Exchanges
4.2.3 Rating and Scoring Kaiako Questions, Vocabulary and Feedback
Part III: Year Three Kaiako Exchanges
4.3.0 Rating the texts
4.3.1 Kaiako Exchanges
4.3.2 Year Three Kaiako Question Exchanges
4.3.4 Year Three Kaiako Vocabulary Exchanges
4.3.5 Year Three Kaiako Feedback Exchanges
Part IV: Year Four Kaiako Exchanges
4.4.0 Rating the texts
4.4.1 Year four Kaiako Exchanges
4.4.2 Year Four Kaiako Question Exchanges
4.4.3 Year Four Kaiako Vocabulary Exchanges
4.4.4 Year Four Kaiako Feedback Exchanges
Chapter Five The Discussion
5.1.0 Tauira Patterns of Achievement
5.1.1 Kaiako Classroom Teaching Observations
5.1.2 The Intervention and Professional Development

Exploring the Instruction and Reading Comprehension of Year Three and Year Four Students in Kura Kaupapa Māori Contexts

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