DEFINING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

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CHAPTER 2 THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS UNDERPINNING THE STUDY

INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, the researcher provided the background and orientation to the study. It was noted that unemployment is one of the major challenges facing the contemporary world and that Vocational Education and Training programmes can play an important role in empowering individuals thereby enhancing their employment opportunities. Vocational Education and Training is an important instrument to capacitate people with the requisite skills and knowledge, particularly women who are the focus of this study. For the most part, this chapter in ground around the four main theoretical frameworks, namely: the empowerment theory,human capital theory, feminism theory and critical pedagogy theory. To appreciate the role played by the above theories, the transformative and humanist theories are also cited in passing because of their influence in the teaching and learning situation involving mainly adults who need to be conscientised in order to change both attitudinally and behaviourally. To recapitulate, this study is premised on skilling unemployed women in the Winterveldt area because women across the globe are found to work in the informal sectors of the economy without appropriate skills to grow and sustain their businesses. As noted above, the study unfolds around the four main theoretical frameworks; the section discussed hereunder handles the importance of using the
four theories in this study.

THE IMPORTANCE OF USING THE FOUR THEORIES FOR THIS
STUDY

The importance of using a multi focal lens approach in the form of the theoretical frameworks was to afford the researcher more than one strategy to understand the context of unemployed women. The ultimate aim is to be able to assist the unemployed women to choose the correct Vocational Education and Training programmes that will empower them with the necessary skills and knowledge that would make them employable. As already stated, four different perspectives constitute the Vocational Education and Training programmes offered. To reiterate, the study used four theoretical frameworks to search for solutions to the problems faced by the unemployed women because these theories offered lenses through which to understand the problems that led to women being unemployed. Against this background, it would be unwise or irresponsible not to use appropriate theoretical lenses to map-out a future scenario in which the Vocational Education and Training programmes could be used to help empower the unemployed women to become employable or to create jobs for themselves. The point made here is that, the programmes to be offered by the Vocational Education and Training should anticipate the future needs of the work-place, because without having an idea of how the future employment opportunities would look like is irresponsible. Therefore, it is imaginably correct to tailor Vocational Educational and Training programmes according to the needs of the available industries. What needs noting is that developing and using theoretical and conceptual frameworks is not straightforward, since they are not found readymade in literature(Ngulube Mathipa & Gumbo in Mathipa & Gumbo, 2015: 44). To compound the problem, there are different definitions and meanings attached to the concept theoretical framework. These misunderstandings have caused confusion in the sense that some scholars refer to a conceptual framework as a theoretical framework. While others confuse paradigms like the constructivist, interpretivist and symbolic interactivist approaches as theoretical frameworks. To simplify matters, the researcher uses her diagram in the next page to provide a structural picture of the position occupied by each of the four theories that are used in the study.

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CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION
SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATION 
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION AND AN ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND ORIENTATION 
1.2 BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 
1.2.1 The prevailing global conditions affecting women
1.2.2 The maps of Winterveldt
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
1.3.1 Sub-questions
1.4 RESEARCH AIMS 
1.5 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY 
1.6 JUSTIFICATION FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN SOUTH AFRICA 
1.7 CONTRIBUTION TO THE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE 
1.8 THE SCOPE, LIMITATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS OF STUDY
1.9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 
1.10 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 
1.10.1 Research Paradigm
1.11 RESEARCH METHOD 
1.12 THE RESEARCH DESIGN
1.12.1 Population and sampling procedures
1.12.2 Instruments for collecting data
1.12.2.1 Individual interview guide
1.12.2.2 Non-participant observation
1.12.2.3 Document analysis
1.13 DATA ANALYSIS 
1.14 TRUSTWORTHINESS 
1.15 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
1.16 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.17 ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS 
1.18 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 2: THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS UNDERPINNING THE STUDY
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF USING FOUR THEORIES FOR THIS STUDY 
2.3 EMPOWERMENT THEORY 
2.4 HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY
2.5 FEMINIST THEORY 
2.6 THEORY OF CRITICAL PEDAGOGY 
2.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 DEFINING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 
3.3 THE UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 
3.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR UNEMPLOYED WOMEN WITHOUT FORMAL EDUCATION 
3.5 THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 
3.6 THE REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 
3.6.1 Vocational Education and Training in Ghana
3.6.2 Vocational Education and Training in Namibia
3.7 THE SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE REGARDING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 
3.7.1 Policies and practices before 1994
3.7.2 The role of missionaries in South African Vocational Education and Training
3.7.3 Policies and Practices after 1994
3.8 WOMEN, VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SOUTH AFRICA 
3.9 LIMITATIONS AND CRITIQUE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING WHEN IT COMES TO UNEMPLOYED WOMEN
3.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH PARADIGM, RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 THE RESEARCH PARADIGM 
4.2.1 Interpretive paradigm
4.2.1.1 Ontological assumptions
4.2.1.2 Epistemological assumptions
4.2.1.3 The axiological assumption
4.2.1.4 Rhetorical assumptions
4.3 THE RESEARCH APPROACH 
4.4 THE RESEARCH DESIGN 
4.5 RESEARCH METHODS
4.5.1 The study site
4.5.2 Selection of participants
4.5.3 Participants’ profile and sampling
4.6 INSTRUMENTS
4.6.1 Non participant observations
4.6.2 Interviews
4.6.3 Document analysis
4.7 DATA COLLECTION
4.7.1 Non participant observation
4.7.2 Interviews
4.7.3 Document analysis
4.8 DATA ANALYSIS
4.8.1 Coding
4.8.2 Themes and categories
4.9 MEASURES FOR TRUSTWORTHINESS
4.9.1 Triangulation
4.9.2 Credibility
4.9.3 Dependability
4.9.4 Transferability
4.9.5 Confirmability
4.10 ETHICAL MEASURES 
4.10.1 Fundamental ethical principles
4.11 CHAPTER SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 5: DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 THEMES
5.2.1 Themes emerging from observations
5.2.1.1 Theme 1: Physical resources, other resources and materials used in Vocational Training programmes
5.2.1.2 Theme 2: Non-formal Vocational Education and Training programmes
5.2.2 Themes emerging from focus group interviews
5.2.2 1 Theme 1: Upgrading skills training
5.2.2 2 Theme 2: Sharing of experiences
5.2.3 Themes emerging from interviews with coordinators
5.2.3 1 Theme 1: Involving the community in identifying their needs
5.2.3 2 Theme 2: Empowering unemployed women
5.2.4 Themes emerging from document analysis
5.2.4 1 Theme 1: Engagement of experts and external stakeholders in the programmes
5.2.4 2 Theme 2: Sustaining Vocational Education and Training programmes
5.3 DISCUSSIONS ON FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS 
5.3.1 Research Question 1: What is the nature of Vocational Education and Training programmes for unemployed women in Winterveldt?
5.3.2 Research Question 2: What factors motivate unemployed women to take part in Vocational Education and Training Programmes?
5.3.2.1 Psycho-social benefits
5.3.2.2 Intellectual benefits
5.3.2.3 Promotion of environmental, cultural and political awareness
5.4 DISCUSSION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS WITH COORDINATORS 
5.5 DISCUSSION OF DOCUMENT ANALYSIS 
5.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 6: OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6. 1 INTRODUCTION 
6.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS IN THE LIGHT OF THE
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 
6.3 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS THROUGH THE LENS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW
6.4 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS FROM INDIVIDUAL AND
FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS 
6.4.1 Findings from participants’ Focus Group interviews
6.4.2 Findings from coordinators’ individual interviews
6.5 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS FROM OBSERVATION TOOL
6.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
6.7 A COMMUNITY BASED VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND
TRAINING FRAMEWORK/MODEL 
6.8 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY
6.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY
6.10 RECOMMENDATIONS 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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