Demographic status of the Northern Cape Province

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The exosystem level

Weyers (2011:20) found that the sustaining environment comprises a wide range of institutionalised and other less intimate services, resources and opportunities that can sustain, enhance, aid or damage a person’s wellbeing. Furthermore, the social environment is referred to as ‘the community.’ A characteristic of the community as a social system is that its sub-systems have linkages with each other and with other systems outside its borders. Any change within a practical sub-system or the broader society would therefore have an impact on all the other systems, including each individual’s. The exosystem, incorporates community-level factors that may not relate directly to the individual, but affect the way the individual functions. This level includes factors such as the workplace policies of rural farms in the Northern Cape affecting the parents (if they cannot take sick leave when their child is sick, for example, this policy has an impact on the youth), school board and community policies, community attitudes and values, and economic and societal factors, for instance, a high level of substance abuse and unemployment or a lack of information centres around HIV and related issues within a neighbourhood and a community (Ambrosino et al., 2012:56). Ambrosino et al. (2012:54), argue further that intervention at the community level is often overlooked when facilitating planned change. Bronfenbrenner and Garbarino (in Ambrosino et al., 2012:54), suggest that for all individuals, each of these environmental levels has both risks and opportunities. Opportunities within the environment encourage an individual to meet their needs and to develop as a healthy, well-functioning person. Risks are either direct threats to healthy development, or the absence of opportunities that would facilitate healthy individual development. Programme implementers such as the Soul City field workers should assess risks and opportunities at each level of the environment, working with the client (or client system, such as a family) to achieve positive change by promoting or increasing the environmental opportunities and reducing or eliminating the environmental risks.

Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) popularisation and demand creation

A total of 30 dialogues on Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) were held in the KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and North West provinces. The dialogues included training and distribution of printed materials (SCI Annual Report, 2014:4). To reach a wider audience, presumably also inclusive of the Northern Cape Province, through broadcast, three television Public Service announcements (PSA) were broadcast during the National Contraceptive Launch held in partnership with the Department of Health. Radio PSAs aired on South African radio stations such as Ukhozi FM, Umhlobo Wenene FM and Lesedi FM for a total of five weeks. Furthermore, the related booklet was read by 2.8 million people in peri-urban areas. In total, 8.6 million people had some form of exposure to the Soul City Institute’s PMTCT. The SCI Annual Report (2014:17) also indicated that the National Communication Survey revealed that their intervention had an impact on knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding and that: ‘the Soul City Institute is one of the “most evaluated projects of its kind in the world with measurable impact being shown over several years” [researcher’s italics] (SCI Annual Report, 2014:4). The researcher argues that the latter statement provides an image of the SCI that it is open to having its interventions critically assessed, with the end aim of improving them. In this context, the researcher therefore explored in an empirical investigation to what extent the latter was embarked upon (if at all), specifically regarding the SCI’s youth interventions in the Northern Cape.

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1. CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction and contextualisation
1.2 Definitions of key concepts
1.3 Theoretical Framework
1.4 Rationale and Research Problem Statement
1.5 Goal and Research Objectives
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Overview of Research Methods
1.8 Limitations and Strengths of Study
1.9 Content of thesis
2. CHAPTER 2: HIV AND AIDS AND THE YOUTH
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Demographic status of the Northern Cape Province
2.3 Youth in relation to HIV and AIDS
2.4 Contributing environmental risk factors with regard to HIV and AIDS prevalence in the Northern Cape and broader South African context
2.5 Behavioural determinants of the HIV and AIDS pandemic
2.6 Youth participation in HIV intervention and prevention efforts
2.7 Summary
3. CHAPTER 3: PUBLIC POLICY IN RELATION TO THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC PLAN ON HIV, STIs AND TB 2012-2016
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Distinction between public and social policies
3.3 The National Strategic Plan on HIV, STIs and TB 2012-2016
3.4 The Northern Cape Provincial Strategic Plan (NCPSP) for HIV & AIDS, 2012-2016
3.5 Discussion of the national strategic plan on HIV and AIDS (NSP)
3.6 Summary
4. CHAPTER 4: THE SOUL CITY SOCIAL INTERVENTION PROGRAMME: AN ECOSYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The ecosystems perspective and the Soul City Programme
4.3 The Soul City Social Intervention Programme
4.4 The Soul City Programme in the Northern Cape
4.5 Summary
5. CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH METHODS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Research Question
5.3 Research paradigm and approach
5.4 Type of research
5.5 Research design and methods
5.6 Study population and sampling
5.7 Data Collection
5.8 Data Analysis
5.9 Pilot Study
5.10 Ethical considerations
5.11 Summary
6. CHAPTER 6: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FINDINGS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Quantitative Empirical Findings
6.3 Soul City Programme (SCP)
6.4 General aspects of the SCP
6.5 Additional comments by respondents
6.6 Summary
7. CHAPTER 7: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FINDINGS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Research Findings
7.3 Themes and Sub-Themes
7.4 Summary
8. CHAPTER 8: PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR HIV AND AIDS RELATED SOCIAL PROGRAMMES TARGETING THE YOUTH
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Practical guidelines to target and structure programme content
8.3 Human capital management
8.4 Implementation of the SCP
8.5 Monitoring and evaluation of the SCP
8.6 Summary
9. CHAPTER 9: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Goal and objectives of the research study
9.3 Key findings and conclusions
9.4 Recommendations

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