Distinction between social and academic language

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Facilitation of Transcendence

When teachers impart skills to learners, their intention is for learners to practice skills repetitively to gain mastery of skills and demonstrate skills in classroom based activities (Fairdom, 2010). Constant application of skills will lead to learners improving their proficiency levels in classroom assessments and increase their readiness for higher level activities when learners enrol for Grade 1 learning (Fairdom, 2010). The constant practising of skills can be applied to second language learning since English is not the learners’ first language in rural schools. Teachers need to provide class based activities where learners can demonstrate the acquired skills which will lead to improved proficiency in E-L2 learning.
An effective teacher facilitates skills which learners can use in other classroom based contexts (Owens, 2012). Grade R learners acquire skills by constant practicing, by playing with toys and child centred activities across a range of classroom contexts (Fairdom, 2010). Teachers need to assess learners’ proficiency in demonstrating the acquired E-L2 skills in the classroom (Matthews, 2009). If learners do not achieve transcendence of skills, mediated learning cannot occur which will suggest that learners will not have the required skills for Grade R learning.

Facilitation of feeling of competence

The teacher plays an important role in building the learner’s confidence so that learners participate in classroom activities either as a part of the class, small group or individually (Clinton, 2010). The teacher can make the situation congenial to learning through providing opportunities for learners to demonstrate their newly acquired skills in the classroom and the learner’s efforts need to be acknowledged by teacher’s praise and encouragement (Smithy, 2009). If learners are shy and unwilling to communicate, then the teacher needs to be patient and gently encourage the child to talk by speaking in a kind, friendly soft voice using terms of endearment and encouragement (Clinton, 2010). When the skills of young learners are being facilitated, the first task could be presented at a level well within the learner’s competence (Feuerstein, 1980). The learner should be repeatedly praised for effort as well as achievement. Learners should not be consciously aware that they are being assessed when demonstrating their acquired skills in the classroom (Azar, 2008). If learners are not confident in mastering E-L2 skills, then mediated learning will not occur and the learner will not develop good E-L2 skills, or any other Grade R skills.

Facilitation of shared participation

Despite the different roles and positions in the school’s hierarchy, the learner and teacher share the goal of the interaction (Justice, 2009). If one participant is not willing or committed to the facilitation process, then learners’ acquisition of skills is compromised. The interaction must be a two-way process leading to skills acquisition in young learners (Richards, 2009). Practical activities for young learners to constantly engage with their teachers may include turn-taking in conversations and modeling by the teacher on how to listen and speak actively and confidently in the classroom (Matthews, 2010). If the learner or the teacher is not participating in the lesson, then mediated learning will not occur and learners will not acquire E-L2 skills in the classroom.

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Facilitation for the control of behaviour 

A successful facilitation exercise is contingent upon how the teacher regulates the learner’s behaviour (Justice, 2009). This may be done by reducing impulsivity and encouraging reflective behaviour (Clinton, 2010). A calm approach helps the learner to concentrate and process information accurately (August & Shanahan, 2006). This can be done by presenting the task in a manageable form, identifying the important components of the task and eliciting from the learner how the task will be demonstrated in the classroom (Owens, 2012). Teachers should encourage learners to participate and complete task based activities (Baywood, 2010).

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Clarification of concepts
1.3 Rationale
1.4 Background to research problem
1.5 Why two educational facilitation approaches are investigated
1.6 Research question
1.7 Theoretical framework
1.8 Outline of chapters
1.9 Summary and conclusion
2.1 Introduction
2.2 How does a child acquire language?
2.3 Importance of first language learning
2.4 Cummins’ interdependence hypothesis
2.5 Distinction between social and academic language
2.6 Contextual factors impacting on language learning
2.7 Mediated learning experience theory (MLET)
2.8 Criteria of the MLET
2.9 Applicability of the MLET to Grade R E-L2 teaching
2.10 Implications of theoretical underpinnings to local practice
2.11 Summary
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Discussion on Grade R educational facilitation approaches
3.3 Developmentally appropriate environments
3.4 Historical overview of the Grade R curriculum in South Africa
3.5 Research on Grade R facilitation approaches for E-L2 learning
3.6 Grade R second language competencies
3.7 Selecting a locally appropriate assessment instrument
3.8 Studies conducted using ELP standards assessment tool
3.9 Important trends identified in research studies
3.10 Literature analysis for Grade R E-L2 scores
3.11 South African language policy for basic education
3.12 Summary and conclusion
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Research aims
4.3 Research questions
4.4 Research design
4.5 Ethical considerations
4.6 Participants
4.7 Materials and apparatus
4.8 Procedures
4.9 Summary and conclusion
5.1 Introduction to results and discussion
5.2 Research questions
6.1 Research summary
6.2 Research implications
6.3 Recommendations based on the study
6.4 Critical evaluation of study
6.5 Limitations
6.6 Future research studies
6.7 New knowledge
6.8 Reflections
7.1 References


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