Emerging Elements in Water Supply Planning

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Chapter 3: Development of the Integrated Plan Template

Integrated Plan Template Introduction

Integrated regional water planning essentially connects different areas of planning into one document and vision. Land use planning, transportation planning, and comprehensive planning all share an association with water supply planning. To create an integrated water supply plan,organization and framework aid the water supply planner. The Integrated Plan Template is one organizational tool. The template is useful to plan for water supply, and during the scoping phase of a water supply planning process. The template can be used to outline a water supply plan or as guide during the process. The template provides one framework for a water supply planning process and should be modified to fit each individual situation.
This thesis creates an integrated water supply planning template. Template elements originate in water supply planning literature, regional, local, and state water supply plans, and other existing templates. The integrated plan template evolves from the contents of plans from across the nation. This thesis incorporates and organizes elements from many sources to form an integrative plan template.
The integrated plan template serves as a guide applied during a regional water supply planning process. The template can be applied during the scoping phase or throughout the entire process. Due to the template’s many origins, it can include examples that may not be applicable in some localities. The template serves as a resource to focus planning for water supply, and it provides ideas for plan elements and methods to incorporate elements of water supply planning into a regional plan.
Appendix A contains the complete integrated plan template for reference. Additionally, Appendix B provides a condensed template. The condensed template lists the major elements of the integrated plan template without supplementary examples. Figure 1 shows the condensed template.
The American Water Works Association also provides a template for water supply planning. The template created for this thesis includes aspects of the American Water Works template, in addition to other elements and themes from literature and water supply plans.

Purpose of the Integrated Plan Template

The integrated plan template seeks to condense and combine literature and practical documents into a useful guide. Using the literature and practical information from existing water supply plan documents, the template will help create a thorough and integrative water supply planning process. The goal of the template is to introduce different aspects and disciplines of planning into the creation of a regional water supply plan.
Water connects many elements of the natural landscape, including forests, wetlands, and wildlife, to humans. Those elements should be considered when planning for water use to maintain a natural equilibrium between humans and nature. The connection of land and water use on a regional basis needs to be considered more wholly now that water resources are becoming scarce and land use by humans is expanding. The template aims to establish connections between natural and human uses for water, while presenting options to maintain natural and sustainable relationships.

Integrated Plan Template Creation

Creation of the integrated plan template for this thesis began with a review of water supply plans and planning checklists. The integrated plan template contains elements from over forty sources. The sources range from current water supply plans to journal articles and books. Common themes organize the elements. For example, most checklists cite “existing supplies” as a necessary element to include in a water supply plan. To create the “existing supplies” section in the integrated plan template, the template groups all references to existing supplies, combines definitions and wording relating to existing supplies and summarizes all variations on existing supplies into one category. After grouping concepts and elements from the different sources, redundant information was eliminated.

Integrated Plan Template Elements

The integrated plan template consists of 18 sections and is presented in its entirety in Appendix
Table 1 on pages 18 lists the 18 elements of the integrated template. Vertically, the table outlines the template elements, while horizontally the table lists sources that contributed to the creation of the template. The table demonstrates template elements contained in and relating to some of the sources that created the template. The shaded boxes in the table represent sources containing template elements.

Sources

The 11 sources provide representative samples of literature contributing to the template. The literature search included an Internet search for relevant articles and plans, a search of Virginia Tech library resources, a search of university resources in partnerships with Virginia Tech, and a search of journal articles from 1970 to the present. Additional reference books uncovered in the literature search, including Water Resources Planning by the American Water Works Association, Water Resources Planning by Dzurik, and Water Supply Planning by Prasifka, provided information and direction in the selection of template sources and sample plans.

Integrated Plan Template Sections

The first three sections of the template establish its foundation. The first section, Introduction, provides the purpose and vision for the plan. The purpose outlines the direction for the region and the vision provides an overarching regional water supply goal. Section 2, Planning Criteria, provides an outline to structure the planning process. Planning criteria include specific jurisdictional constraints, a period for the process to occur, and ideas on which the water supply planning process will focus. The next section, Goals and Objectives, outlines specific directives that the region wants to pursue with its water planning. Goals describe the overall intent of the regional water provider. The goals reflect and expand the vision of the plan. Each goal has at least one corresponding objective. Objectives provide measurable evaluation criteria connected to each goal. Objectives should be clear-cut and are either complete or incomplete. As the conditions of the region change over time, the template encourages goal evaluation. Goal evaluation determines goal contribution or detriment to the plan and reviews the impact of plan goals on the regions’ natural supplies. Throughout the period the plan is active, the goals review keeps water planning on track.
The goals section of the template includes plan goals and community goals. When establishing a regional plan, several partners will likely participate in the process. Depending on plan structure, each partner or member utility may need to present its own plan to be part of the regional plan, or the member utility may need to express its needs from the regional provision of water. Each member utility should be included in the plan goals section by creating independent goals. Community goals encourage participation of member utilities, and highlight areas on which the regional plan should focus. Similarly, community goals should have measurable objectives. The structure of the plan dictates whether the community or the regional provider will accomplish the objectives in the community goals section.

Chapter 1: Introduction
Introduction to Water Supply Planning
Statement of Purpose
Research Objectives
Methodology Overview
Document Overview
Chapter 2: Water Supply Planning
Regional Planning
Planning Approach and Theory
Water Planning History
Drinking Water Standards
Current Trends
Future Trends
Emerging Elements in Water Supply Planning
Drought Planning
Demand Management
Supply Enhancement
Supply Alternatives
Source Protection
Water Pricing
Water Supply Planning in Conjunction with Land Use Planning ntegrated Resource Planning
Chapter 3: Development of the Integrated Plan Template
Integrated Plan Template Introduction
Purpose of the Integrated Plan Template
Integrated Plan Template Creation
Integrated Plan Template Elements
Sources
Integrated Plan Template Sections
Chapter 4: The Integrated Plan Template in the Planning Process 
The Planning Process
Step 0: Scoping
Step1: Identification of Issues, Opportunities, Concerns
Step 2: Analysis of the Planning Situation
Step 3: Formulation of Alternatives
Step 4: Assessment of Impacts
Step 5: Evaluation and Selection of Plan
Step 6: Implementation, Monitoring, Evaluation and Modification
Further Applications of the Integrated Plan Template
Chapter 5: Application of the Template
Regional Plan Selection
1. Currency
2. Geographic Location
3. Plan Scale
4. Scope of Information
Limitations
Regional Plan Comparison Method
Limitations to the Comparison Checklist Method
Rationale
Regional Plan Comparison Results
Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan- Southeast Florida
Missing Elements
Regional Water Supply Plan- Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area
Missing Elements
Urban Water Management Plan- San Diego County, California
Missing Elements
Watersheds- Chester County, Pennsylvania
Missing Elements
Plan Comparison Discussion
Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan- Southeast Florida
Regional Water Supply Plan- Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area
Urban Water Management Plan- San Diego County, California
Watersheds- Chester County, Pennsylvania
Chapter 6: Evaluation and Conclusion
Integrated Plan Template Evaluation
Discussion
Conclusion
Bibliography
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A Template to Enhance Regional Water Supply Planning

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