Frequency data analyses
Quantitatively describing the characteristics of a set of data is known as descriptive statistics. Frequency analysis is a component of this type of statistics: in statistics, frequency is the number of times an event occurs. In this study, the data did not fit a Chi-square analysis, which was also due to the small sample.
Frequency analysis is undertaken by entering the gathered data into a table consisting of four columns. The first column records frequency of values / variables gathered from the IDI participants, while the second column records the percentage of the values gathered from the data: the third column indicates the valid percentage of the data and the fourth the cumulative percentage (Cooper & Schindler, 2013:389).
Frequency data analyses calculate how frequently an item occurs, divided by all the specific outcomes. For example: A certain sports team has won 10 games of a total of 20 games played: the frequency of winning is 10 games out of a total of 20 games. The frequency of winning is consequently 10 and the relative frequency of winning is 10/20 = 50%. It can therefore be concluded that the frequency of an event is the number of times that the event occurs during experimental trials, divided by the total number of trials conducted. The result will be that variables with high and low frequencies can be identified.
According to Cooper & Schindler (2008:459), cross-tabulation is “a technique for comparing data from two or more categorical variables”. Tables with rows and columns are used; so that by utilising this technique the values of each variable can be categorised. Cross tabulation is a form of analysis that compares the relationship between two variables. Cross tabulations are tables of data that present the results of an entire group of respondents.
Methods of data verification
Verification of the content analysis depends on:
– stability (the same data can be consistently recoded in the same way over a period;
– reproducibility (classifying categories of membership in the same way);
– accuracy (the extent to which the classification of a text may correspond to a standard or norm statistically);
– validity (refers to the correspondence of categories to the conclusions);
– generalisability (refers to the correspondence of categories of results to a theory) (Busch, et al., 1994-2012:12-13).
Lincoln and Guba (1985) discussed four criteria as methods of data verification: credibility, transferability, dependability and conformability.
Credibility is achieved when a researcher believes the phenomenon is accurately defined and described in the study (Bradley, 1993: 436; Vos et al., 2011:351; Zhang & Wildemuth, 2009:6). The method to ensure this is to request participants’ voluntary participation as well as to give them the opportunity to refuse or withdraw from the study without needing to furnish any reasons for their decision. During the interview, the researcher used verbal communication and made use of probing questions to increase the credibility of the research. The participants were encouraged to talk about their experiences and to contribute ideas without fear of losing their credibility.
Triangulation was used to enhance the quality of the research as it aims to reach the goal of the study by verifying or corroborating [an] “…event, description or fact being reported by a study” (Yin, 2011:81). Qualitative data was collected from SMMEs and interpreted in order to obtain the result; this enabled the researcher to gain insight into the participants’ viewpoints regarding the topic of the study.
Transferability refers to a researcher being able to apply a set of findings to another context; this resembles external validity (De Vos et al., 2011:351; Wahyuni, 2012:77; Zhang & Wildemuth, 2009:6). Since the researcher is the key instrument, transferability can be enhanced by detailing the research method as well as the context and assumptions underlying the study (Thomas, 2010:320).
Dependability relies on “…the coherence of the internal process and the way the researcher accounts for changing conditions in the phenomena” (Bradley, 1993:437). This can be accomplished through audits of the research processes and findings. The researcher is able to achieve this by checking the consistency of the study processes (Zhang & Wildemuth, 2009:7).
Conformability refers to “…the extent to which the characteristics of the data, as posited by the researcher, can be confirmed by others who read or review the research results” (Bradley, 1993, p.437). This can be attained by audits of the research processes and findings. The researcher can achieve this standard by checking the internal coherence of the data, findings, interpretations, and recommendations (Zhang & Wildemuth, 2009:7).
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.3 Rationale for the study
1.4 The research question
1.5 Objectives of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Research methodology
1.8 Outline of the study
CHAPTER 2: THEORIES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP, SMALL BUSINESSES AND THE ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS
2.2 The theory of entrepreneurship
2.3 Theory of small businesses
2.4 The entrepreneurial process theories
CHAPTER 3: THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA, ITS POLITICS AND ECONOMY
3.2 The historical development and economic background of South Africa
3.3 A brief history of South Africa’s politics and economy before 1994
3.4 Impact on the South African economy
3.5 The political and economic position of a post-apartheid South Africa
CHAPTER 4: ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT, DEFINITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENTREPRENEUR
4.2 Enterprise development
4.3 Definitions and characteristics of an entrepreneur
CHAPTER 5: THE IMPORTANCE OF SMME’S
5.2 Definition of and criteria for a small business
5.3 The role of small businesses in an economy
5.4 Economic growth and unemployment
CHAPTER 6: Broad–Based Black Economic Empowerment in South Africa
6.2 Interventions in other countries
6.3 Interventions in South Africa
6.4 The origin and emergence of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment
6.5 Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act (No.53 of 2003)
6.6 The components and weighted elements of the generic B-BBEE scorecard
CHAPTER 7: OVERVIEW OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY
7.2 Purpose of the study
7.3 Research methodology
CHAPTER 8: ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY
8.2 Description of variables
8.3 Types of analyses
8.4 Outcomes of the research question and propositions
CHAPTER 9: MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
9.4 Summary and findings
9.5 Limitations of the study
LIST OF REFERENCES