ETIOLOGY OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

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CHAPTER 3: ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE

INTRODUCTION

The previous chapter concluded phase 1, step 1 (the literature research on emotional intelligence) (see section 1.8: Research methodology). Step 2 (the literature research on organisational climate and theoretical integration of emotional intelligence and organisational climate) will be presented in this chapter. The aim of this chapter is to conceptualise organisational climate in a theoretical model and to conceptualise a theoretical model that views emotional intelligence as a determinant of organisational climate.
Organisational climate originates from the gestalt psychology of Kurt Lewin (Schneider, Bowen, Ehrhart, & Holcombe, 2000). According to this paradigm, organisational climate should be viewed as a gestalt, based on patterns of experiences and behaviours of people in an organisation as perceived by its members. Within the gestalt of organisational climate, individual elements of perception are integrated into a whole that represents more than the sum of its parts.
It has been established for some time now that climate can be analysed validly at three different levels (Field & Abelson, 1982). These levels are the individual level (psychological climate), group level (group climate) and organisational level (organisational climate). These levels of analysis are supported by Schneider, Ehrhart, and Macey (2013). However, some researchers like Yammarino and Dansereau (2011) lump climate and culture research together and add a fourth level of analysis, namely society or country level. The fourth level would technically only be used for the analysis of culture, for example, national culture.
This research will focus on the gestalt of climate generated at organisational level (organisational climate).
Organisational climate can be studied as a global or generic climate (a molar construct) or in a specific (focal or strategic) manner. Schneider (1975) suggested that the dimensions of climate will differ according to the purpose of the investigation and that general (generic) measures will always include dimensions that are (at least to some extent) irrelevant for a specific study. This notion gave rise to the development of specific (strategic) climate measures. The two strategic climates most widely used, according to Schneider et al. (2013), are climate for service and climate for safety.
The empirical research that follows will present climate as a generic or molar construct. This is done to make it possible to make broader inferences from the model for emotional intelligence as a determinant of organisational climate, than would be possible when climate is viewed from a specific (strategic) perspective.
Moran and Volkwein (1992) identified four different approaches to the conceptualisation of how organisational climate forms. The structural approach regards organisational climate as an objective manifestation of the organisation’s structure. The perceptual approach views climate as a psychologically processed description of organisational conditions. The interactive approach sees climate as the result of interaction between organisational members and reaching a shared agreement. The cultural approach includes elements of the aforementioned but also views climate as a result of the interaction between individuals, with the same shared organisational culture.
Payne (2000) aligns to the cultural approach when he indicates that the constructs of climate and culture are close to each other, and he even calls for the construct of climate to be used as a method to measure culture.
This research will view organisational climate from the cultural perspective, and this chapter will attempt to integrate theory from various sources into an all-encompassing theoretical model of organisational climate. This model will lay the foundation for the empirical research in chapters 4 and 5. This climate model will focus on generic (molar) climate, as opposed to specific (strategic) climate.

DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE

Although Schein’s (1985) definition is somewhat vague, it succeeds in linking climate with a closely related construct, namely organisational culture. Schein (1985) defines climate as a surface level manifestation of the more deeply rooted organisational culture. In terms of his three-layer model of culture, Schein (2000) regards climate as a cultural artefact that results from espoused values and shared assumptions.
Reichers and Schneider (1990, p. 22) simply define organisational climate as “… shared perceptions of the way things are around here …”.
An earlier definition by the same authors provides insight into what these “things” entail. They defined organisational climate as the shared perceptions of organisational policies, practices and procedures (Schneider & Reichers, 1983).
West, Smith, Lu Feng, and Lawthom (1998, p. 262) define organisational climate in a similar fashion with a simple, yet encompassing definition as the “perceptions that organisation members share of fundamental elements of their organisation”. This definition seems to summarise the definition of Schneider (1990), who defined climate as the shared perceptions of employees concerning the practices, procedures, and behaviours that are rewarded and supported in a work setting.
According to Patterson, West, Shackleton, Lawthom, Maitlis, Robinson, Dawson, and Wallace (2005, p. 380), climate generally refers to employee “… perceptions of organisations …”, but they also add that at a much broader level, organisational climate describes how organisational members experience and attach shared meanings to their perceptions of this environment. These shared meanings are a vital part of the theory of organisational climate.
For the purpose of this research, organisational climate will be defined as a surface-level manifestation of organisational culture that becomes accessible through the perceptions, attitudes and feelings which organisation members share about significant aspects of the organisation.
With organisational climate defined, the next sections will discuss the origin of organisational climate and how it is formed.

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ETIOLOGY OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE

Schneider and Reichers (1983) and Schneider (2000) rightfully point to the importance of understanding the origins of organisational climate in order to advance in the conceptualisation and research methodology deployed. Schneider and Reichers (1983) and Schneider (2000) agree that, unlike in organisational culture research, research on the etiology of climates is not forthcoming.
Although a theoretical differentiation between climate and culture is possible, climate is formed in the context of a deeper underlying culture (Schein, 2000). It therefore seems a logical deduction to present the etiology of climate and culture together in the sections below.

CHAPTER 1: SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND TO AND MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.4 AIMS
1.5 RESEARCH MODEL
1.6 THE PARADIGM PERSPECTIVE
1.7 RESEARCH DESIGN
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.9 CHAPTER LAYOUT
1.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 2: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 DEFINITION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
2.3 EMOTIONS
2.4 INTELLIGENCE
2.5 ETIOLOGY OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
2.6 MODELS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
2.7 ASSESSMENT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
2.8 INTEGRATION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE DIMENSIONS
2.9 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND
2.10 INTEGRATION MODEL FOR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
2.11 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 3: ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE 
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.3 ETIOLOGY OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.4 COMMUNICATION AND LEARNING OF CULTURE
3.5 CLIMATE AND CULTURE
3.6 MODELS OF THE COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK
3.7 MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.8 THEORETICAL INTEGRATION OF CLIMATE AND CULTURE MODELS ON THE BASIS OF THE COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK
3.9 ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE AND ORGANISATIONAL
OUTCOMES
3.10 MEASUREMENT AND CONTROVERSIES
3.11 PROPOSED MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.12 THEORETICAL INTEGRATION MODEL OF EMOTIONAL  INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.13 EVIDENCE FOR AN INTEGRATED MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.14 INTEGRATION MODEL: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS  A DETERMINANT OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.15 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 4: THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLE 1
4.3 BIOGRAPHICAL AND DEMOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES
4.4 MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT FOR EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGENCE: THE GERBER EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE (GEIS)
4.5 MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT FOR ORGANISATIONAL
CLIMATE AND WORK OUTPUT: HIGH PERFORMANCE
CLIMATE QUESTIONNAIRE (HPCQ) AND WORK OUTPUT
QUESTIONNAIRE
4.6 DATA COLLECTION
4.7 DATA ANALYSES
4.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
4.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 5: RESULTS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 BIOGRAPHICAL AND DEMOGRAPHICAL PROFILE OF THE SAMPLE
5.3 MEASUREMENT OF WORK OUTPUT
5.4 INTERPRETATION OF WORK OUTPUT DATA BASED ON BIOGRAPHICAL AND DEMOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES
5.5 MEASUREMENT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
5.6 INTERPRETATION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE DATA BASED ON BIOGRAPHICAL AND DEMOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES
5.7 MEASUREMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
5.8 INTERPRETATION OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE DATA BASED ON BIOGRAPHICAL AND DEMOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES
5.9 SEM TESTING: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A
DETERMINANT OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
5.10 INTERPRETATION OF THE FINAL MODEL
5.11 SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS
5.12 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 CONCLUSION
6.3 LIMITATIONS
6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
6.5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
6.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
A MODEL FOR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A DETERMINANT OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE

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