Farm or orchard management system and corresponding farmer characteristics

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Native birds

As shown in Table 22 there was a modest range of responses to the native bird diversity and management questions. None were rated with a high score, most ranging between somewhat unimportant or neutral. Overall there were sector effects and management system effects for most of the questions asked about native birds. For the view of ‘not liking more native birds on my farm’ there were no sector effects and no management system effects. Note that the distribution of scores shows an acute bimodal pattern with large numbers choosing very strongly agree and very strongly disagree although less so for dairy farmers. This pattern is a feature of the responses to many of the questions in this set. This has led to the larger score differences in the means in many of the comparisons, and greater variability as measured by the standard deviations. For the claim that farms with more native birds are also more likely to cope with drought and climate stresses there were no sector effects but full management system effects.

Organic management

Production, finance and appearance Organic farmers gave a lower rating of importance to yields per hectare, a neat and tidy landscape, having a tidy, well maintained farm/orchard, minimum weeds, volume of production, and no productive land going to waste, and a higher rating to the importance of reducing carbon emissions. They reported that they less frequently considered or implemented paying close attention to money in the bank and good returns from each part of the business and to the adoption of proven practices rather than doing their own experiments. Alongside modified conventional farmers they reported that they more frequently considered or implemented paying close attention to changes in plants/animals/insects on their farms and deviating from their established farm plans. Also, with modified conventional farmers, they gave a higher rating to the importance of customer requirements and satisfaction, and farm environmental health.

Conventional management

Production, financial and appearance Conventional farmers, along with modified conventional farmers, gave a higher rating to the importance of yields per hectare, a neat and tidy landscape, having a tidy, well maintained farm/orchard, minimum weeds, volume of production, and no productive land going to waste, and a lower rating to the importance of reducing carbon emissions. They reported that they more frequently considered or implemented paying close attention to money in the bank and good returns from each part of the business. Conventional farmers reported that they more frequently considered or implemented the adoption of proven practices rather than doing their own experiments and less frequently considered or implemented paying close attention to changes in plants/animals/insects on their farms, deviating from their established farm plans, and learning new things by talking with a wide variety of people. Conventional farmers gave a lower rating to customer requirements, customer satisfaction and farm environmental health.

Modified conventional management

Modified conventional management farmers have three potential locations relative to the other two management systems: they appeared to express the perspective of either the organic or conventional farmers or appeared in between them. We will first present the results for which they appeared to be in the middle – significantly different from both organic and conventional farmers. Then we will present the results where they identified more strongly with the conventional farmers and then the results where they match the organic farmers. The only two results for which modified conventional farmers reported the highest ratings were the frequency they considered or implemented learning new things by talking to a wide variety of people, and their involvement in providing cash financial support for community activities. Situations in which modified conventional farmers were between conventional and organic farmers Modified conventional farmers were in the middle of the two other management systems with regard to the frequency with which they considered or implemented the adoption of proven practices rather than doing their own experiments, interest in participating in a market accreditation scheme in the form of a “bird tick” that certifies production as native bird friendly, in the importance of native and exotic trees and shrubs for increasing insect diversity and abundance and shelter for stock and fruit, and the importance of exotic trees and shrubs for providing fodder and logs/timber.

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Sector patterns – main effects

In terms of sector patterns, Table 36 shows the results for sector main effects for each set of questions used in the questionnaire. There are eight logically possible combinations of sector effects. The table starts in the first column with a comparison of results for which there was a difference for each sector result. The next three columns show comparisons for which all three sectors were involved and one was statistically different from the other two. The next three columns show comparisons where only two sectors were involved. The last column of comparisons includes all cases where there were no statistically significant results for any sector. The table also includes the total number of variables in each question set, and the percentage of these for which there were statistically significant main effects. The asterisks indicate which management system had a different result but note that it does not indicate which one had the highest or lowest score for a particular variable.

Contents :

  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Acknowledgements
  • Summary
  • Chapter 1 Introduction: Objectives, Method and Design
    • 1.1 Background
    • 1.2 Research Aim and Objectives
    • 1.3 Sample design
    • 1.4 Questionnaire development and survey procedure
    • 1.5 Response rates and non-respondent survey
    • 1.6 Sample representativeness
    • 1.7 Data checking and adjustments to the samples
    • 1.8 Statistical analysis and rating scale
  • Chapter 2 Results
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Farm or orchard management system and corresponding farmer characteristics
    • 2.3 Intentions to use different management systems
    • 2.4 Indicators
    • 2.5 Approach to management
    • 2.6 Connections
    • 2.7 Community Participation
    • 2.8 Farming factors
    • 2.9 Emissions trading
    • 2.10 Bird diversity and management
    • 2.11 Trees and shrubs
  • Chapter 3 Discussion and Conclusion: General Patterns in the
    • Results
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Management system patterns – main effects
    • 3.3 Sector patterns – main effects
    • 3.4 Combined analysis of management and sector patterns
    • 3.5 Conclusions supported by meta-analysis
  • References
    • Appendix 1: Full data tables for each question
    • Appendix 2: The Questionnaire

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New Zealand Farmer and Orchardist Attitude and Opinion Survey 2008: Characteristics of organic, modified conventional (integrated) and organic management, and of the sheep/beef, horticulture and dairy sectors

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