GENDER AND RURAL TRANSPORT SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICA POST

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Introduction

Transport is a topic of universal interest and importance. Production, trade and daily life require the movement of people and goods. Above all, most people wish to travel from one place to another, regularly or occasionally. Goods are collected and distributed from place to place. Thus, the transport industry exists to provide for the movement of people and goods as well as for the provision and distribution of services. Transport fulfils one of the most important functions in development and is one of the most pervasive activities in any society or economy (Hoyle & Knowles, 1992:1). Transport is also generally regarded as one of the most important factors in the process of development, both in advanced and in less advanced countries (Edmonds & Relf, 1987:3; Hoyle, 1988:71). The general importance of transport cannot be overemphasised, even though it is really only noticed when things go wrong (Hoyle & Knowles, 1992:1). Transport becomes a focus of media attention when disasters occur, when struggles paralyse services, or when exciting innovations capture public interest or become the subject of controversy. This view indicates that the study of transport cannot be left in the hands of the media. Geographers have much to contribute to the study of transport and transport geography, which, in recent years, is increasingly recognised as a useful and important component in the broad field of general transport
analysis (Hoyle & Knowles, 1992; Pirie & Khosa, 1992; Tolley & Turton, 1995; Law, 1999).

Statement of the problem

The dawn of democracy in South Africa has ushered in a new era of improved service delivery by the state. However, many African women, especially in rural areas, still face daunting challenges in terms of access to basic services. It is argued in this thesis that rural transport plans and development in South Africa, as elsewhere, have failed to adequately address specific gender issues, especially the specific transport needs of rural women, which suggests gaps between planning and implementation. The theme explored in this study is to unpack the relationship between transport and empowerment or disempowerment, especially as it relates to rural black African women within the context of South Africa, which is undergoing major social, economic and political transformation.

The rationale

Uppermost in the mind of the new democratic government was to improve the quality of life for all, and, in particular, for rural African women, as guided by continental policies of the NEPAD, the Constitutive Act of the African Union, and the SADC Declaration on Gender and Development. Thus the rationale for engendering rural transport is based on complementary objectives. These objectives are outlined under the macro policy environment, including gender equality and equity, economic development, and social efficiency and social sustainability.

Economic need and social efficiency

The issue of special needs is directly linked to the economic reason for collecting gender disaggregated data. Economic and social efficiency have to do with the distribution of transport resources that are economically and socially inefficient and which, therefore, underestimate the productive and social roles of rural women in society. The assumption here is that time saved in transport can be better used for productive activities. Studies investigating this theory are few because labour saving devices for women are comparatively new. However, there are a few examples. In Kenya, for example, time saved in water collection through the introduction of rain harvesting was allocated to craftwork. Savings from craftwork were used to buy a maize mill (Mascarenhas, 1995). In another case, savings in time and effort through hand-operated maize mills in Cameroon were used to improve roads, make soap and spend more time on domestic activities (Carr & Sandhu,
1987).

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Chapter 1: BACKGROUND
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 The rationale
1.3.1. Macro-policy environment
1.3.2. Gender equality
1.3.3. Economic need and social efficiency
1.3.4. Welfare need
1.3.5. Demographic need
1.3.6. Efficiency and sustainability
1.3.7. Welfare need
1.4 The research questions
1.5 Aim of the study
1.6 Overview of methodology
1.7 The study area
1.8 Transport needs
1.9 Structure of the thesis
1.10 Conclusion
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW: GENDER AND TRANSPORT
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The rural infrastructure debate
2.3 Rural development
2.4 The need to grasp local realities
2.5 Transport for the low-income group (IMTs)
2.6 Emerging issues from the debates
2.7 Gender and transport
2.8 The gender dimensions of social and spatial exclusion
2.8.1. Marginality and integration
2.8.2. Dualism and social relation
2.8.3. Actors, agency and subjectivity
2.9 Gender-based exclusion
2.9.1. Division of labour
2.9.2. Power relations
2.9.3. Patriarchy
2.10 Gendered access to resources
2.11 Conclusion
Chapter 3: GENDER AND RURAL TRANSPORT SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICA POST
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Gender and transport
3.3 Rural transport policy review
3.3.1. National Transport Policy Forum (NTPF)
3.3.2. Rural Development Programme (RDP)
3.3.3. Rural Development Strategy (RDS)
3.3.4. Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR)
3.3.5. Transport policy review
3.3.6. Moving South Africa (SA) andGender
3.3.7. National Rural Transport Strategy
3.4 Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS)
3.5 The Gender Policy Framework
3.6 Evaluation of the new rural transport environment
3.7 Concluding remarks
Chapter 4: METHODOLOGY
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Quantitative and qualitative methodologies
4.3 Feminist methodology
4.4 Research methods
4.4.1. Focus group interviews
4.4.2. Observation methods
4.4.3. Documentary data
4.4.5. Photographs
4.5 Data analysis
4.5.1. Developing a system to organise data
4.5.2. Segmenting data
4.5.3. Making the necessary connections
4.6 Verification
4.7 Validity and relaibility
4.7.1. Detailed description
4.7.2. Triangulation
4.7.3. Feedback
4.7.4. Member checking
4.7.5. Comparison
4.8 Ethical issues
4.9 Summary
Chapter 5: FINDINGS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Rural of women in rural development
5.2.1. Productive roles
5.2.2. Reproductive roles
5.2.3. Community roles
5.2.4. Men’s roles
5.3 Transport needs
5.3.1. Subsistence needs
5.3.2. Travel and transport for economic needs
5.3.3. Transport for social needs
5.3.4. Transport for the development of human capital
5.4 Rural women’s transport constraints
5.4.1. Self-employed and unemployed rural women
5.4.2. Rural women transport entrepreneurs
5.5 Other observations
5.6 Impact of transport on rural women
5.7 Summary
5.8 Conclusion
Chapter 6: THE DISEMPOWERMENT OF RURAL WOMEN:ODDS TOO GREAT TO OVERCOME
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The gap between policy and rural women’s experiences
6.2.1. Rural women’s roles 106
6.2.2. Time schedule 107
6.2.3. Division of labour 108
6.2.4. Accessibility to resources and services 108
6.3 Different impacts on rural women
6.3.1. Heavy work schedule 112
6.3.2. Lack of transport 113
6.4 The needs of rural women
6.5 Why a pro-active approach?
6.5.1. Cross-sectoral thinking 118
6.5.2. Equal weight in infrastructure 120
6.5.3. Appropriate modes of transport 121
6.5.4. Spatial planning 122
6.5.5. Mainstreaming gender and transport 124
6.5.6. Mainstreaming livelihood issues 125
6.6 Summary
6.7 Concluding remarks
Chapter 7: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Approach of the study
7.3 Literature and methodology
7.4 Emerging themes
7.5 Other emerging themes
7.5.1. Generalisation of needs
7.5.2. Economic and social inefficiency
7.5.3. Social sustainability
7.6 Recommendations for rural transport policy and planning
7.6.1. Equity or efficiency
7.6.2. Sector strategy
7.6.3. Broadening of the rural transport problem
7.6.4. Acknowledge appropriate rural transport interventions
7.6.5. Challenges for planners and policy makers
7.7 Recommendations for further research
7.7.1. Mainstreaming gender issues
7.7.2. Gender monitoring and evaluation
7.7.3. Setting targets
7.7.4. Gender sensitive interventions
7.7.5. Empowerment
7.7.6. Implications for further research
7.8 Concluding statements

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Spatial and social exclusion: Travel and transport needs of rural women in Limpopo, South Africa

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