IMPACT OF PARENTS AND FAMILY SUPPORT

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CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 3 presents the research design and methods used in this research to address the research problem and answer the research questions. It discusses the research design, methods, the study population and sampling, data collection and analysis methods, the strategies used for ensuring the validity and reliability of the study, and the ethical considerations complied to. The study was used concurrent design in a mixed-method which combined elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches for the purpose of breadth and depth of understanding the phenomenon of positive sexual behaviour amongst adolescence attending high school in Ethiopia and its corroboration.

RESEARCH PARADIGM

Paradigm is a model or framework for observation and understanding, which shapes both what one sees and how understands it (Earl 2008; 2:59). ‘‘paradigms’’ based on Morgan (2007:48-76): ‘‘Systems of beliefs and practices that influence how researchers select both the questions they study and methods that they use to study them’’.
Paradigms are not static, unchanging entities that restrict all aspects of the research process. Instead, paradigms can help frame one’s approach to a research problem and offer suggestions for how to address it given certain beliefs about the world. Thus, paradigms are seen as a guide that the researchers can use to ground their research (Shannon-Baker 2016: 319–334). According to Denise and Cheryl (2010,1:30). a paradigm is a world view, a general perspective on the complexities of the real world.
According to Bowling (2009:129), a research paradigm is a perspective based on a set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that are held by a researcher, and it is essentially an approach to thinking about and doing research. In this study, the research paradigm is a positivist paradigm. The paradigm underlying the traditional scientific approach, which assumes that there is a fixed, orderly reality that can be objectively studied. This method allowed the researcher to ask all the respondents the same questions with predetermined responses, which allowed objective data to be collected throughout the study.
According to Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts (2007: 5), a paradigm is “a broad view or perspective of something”. Additionally, Paradigm is the philosophical underpinnings from which specific research approaches stem (Sharon and Elizabeth 2009:18).
Paradigm means how research could be affected and guided by paradigms and they state that “paradigms are patterns of beliefs and practices that regulate inquiry within a discipline by providing lenses, frames and processes through which investigation is accomplished”. Therefore, to clarify the researcher’s structure of inquiry and methodological choices, an exploration of the paradigm adopted for the study was discussed prior to any discussion about the specific methodologies utilized in this study. Due to the complex nature of the research study, there was no single paradigm that could satisfactorily deal with all of the required methodological aspects. As a result, the researcher found it necessary to combine the quantitative/positivist paradigm with the qualitative/interpretiveparadigmresearchonline.nd.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?filename =2; Date accessed: June 5 2015).
Therefore, the data collection was involved gathering both numeric information (questionnaire) as well as text information (focus group discussion) so that the final database represented both quantitative and qualitative information. With the development and perceived legitimacy of both qualitative and quantitative research in the social and human sciences, mixed methods research, employing the combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches, has gained popularity. This popularity is because research methodology continues to evolve and develop, and mixed methods is another step forward, utilizing the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research (Creswell 2009; 10:188). Mixed methods is a rich field for the combination of data because with this design “words, pictures, and narrative can be used to add meaning to numbers” (Sharleen 2010; 1:18).
A mixed methods approach is one in which the researcher tends to base knowledge claims on pragmatic grounds (e.g., consequence-oriented, problem-centered, and pluralistic). It employs strategies of inquiry that involve collecting data either simultaneously or sequentially to best understand research problems. The data collection also involves gathering both numeric information (e.g., on instruments) as well as text information (e.g., on interviews) so that the final database represents both quantitative and qualitative information. (Creswell; 2009: 120-121).
In other words, what ones generally consider qualitative data “Words, pictures, and narrative” can be combined with quantitative, numerical data from a larger-scale study on the same issue, allowing our research results to be generalized for future studies and examinations (Sharleen 2010; 1:18).
Quantitative approach
Quantitative research denoted the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena by means of mathematical and statistical techniques (Given 2008:699). It involved collecting data in numerical form and analysing by statistical methods (Mackey and Gass 2011:220). Its research objective is to develop mathematical models, theories or hypotheses about certain social phenomena and in an aim to make use of them (Fei Ma 2015: 566-571).
The main idea behind quantitative research is to be able to separate things easily so that they can be counted and modelled statistically, to remove factors that may distract from the intent of the research. A researcher generally has a very clear idea about what is being measured before they start measuring it. Quantitative is ideal for testing hypotheses, and for hard sciences trying to answer specific questions (Quantitative and Qualitative Research:From:http://wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.h tml (accessed on 15 January 2016).
In quantitative research the researchers analyze data with the help of statistical knowledge and tools, hoping the data will yield an unbiased result which can be generalized to a larger population (Fei Ma 2015: 566-571). Quantitative research methods are research methods dealing with numbers and anything that is measurable in a systematic way of investigation of phenomena and their relationships. It is used to answer questions on relationships within measurable variables with an intention to explain, predict and control a phenomenon (Fei Ma 2015: 566-571). The quantitative research is usually deductive, fit for more breadth of information across a large number of samples with more generalizable result ((Hennink, Hutter, and Bailey 2011: 111-112). The quantitative method employed in the present study was the principal component designed to collect data useful to have an empirical understanding of the patterns of positive sexual behaviours among adolescents attending high schools.
At the time of the survey, adolescents were selected systematically in randomly selected high schools. In addition, probability sampling was employed in each school to draw study subjects in terms of number and sex of study participants.

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Qualitative approach

Qualitative research is a paradigm of inquiry that allows researchers to examine human behaviour in depth and the reasons that govern such behaviour (Fei Ma 2015: 566-571). The researcher acts as a listener and interpreter of the data ‘given’ by the participant; the researcher’s interpretation is brought to the fore in the analysis process. In order to credibly interpret a participant’s story, therefore, the researcher needs to understand and make explicit their position in relation to the phenomenon under scrutiny. This requires a degree of self-reflexivity (Sharon and Elizabeth 2009; 7:128).
Qualitative research is useful for exploring new topics or understanding complex issues, e.g. for explaining people’s beliefs and behaviours or for identifying the social norms of a society. Thus qualitative research is most applicable for addressing ‘why’ questions to explain and understand issues or ‘how’ questions that describe process or behaviour (Hennink, et al 2011: 111-112).
According to Sharon and Elizabeth (2009; 7:128) an interpretive researcher uses a theoretical framework to interpret the significance of the participants’ self-understandings. The qualitative data is generally termed ‘soft’, i.e., rich in description of people, places, and conversations, which is not easily handled by statistical procedures (Fei Ma 2015: 566-571).
Qualitative research is often an inductive process, fit for in-depth exploration of small samples with a less generalizable result (Fei Ma 2015: 566-571). In this study, the qualitative study (i.e., focus group discussion) was not a separate one but a part of the cross-sectional survey that aimed at substantiating and complementing the main quantitative study. In this regard, the necessary preparations were made to undertake a qualitative study that included selected adolescents.
The justification behind such an additional arrangement was to get a complete and comprehensive picture of the intended objectives. In fact, the need for the undertaking of a qualitative study becomes evident as a result of the emergence of new phenomena requiring further inquiry into some of the issues which was not be captured by the quantitative research method.
RESEARCH DESIGN
According to Bowling (2009:158) and Burns and Grove (2009:40), research design refers to the overall structure or of how the researcher intend conducting the research and focuses on the logic of research. The research design is a blueprint for maximizing control over factors that could interfere with a study’s desired outcome. The type of design directs the selection of a population, sampling procedure, methods of measurement, and a plan for data collection and analysis. The choice of data collection depends on the problem and purpose for the study, and the desire to generalize the finding.
The purpose of the research design is to guide the researcher in planning and implementing the study in a way that is most likely to achieve the intended goal. This control increases the probability that the study results are accurate reflections of reality. A strong design makes it more likely the study will contribute to the evidence base for practice. The research design must therefore be appropriate to the purpose of the study, feasible given realistic constraints and effective in reducing threats to validity (Burns and Grove 2009:218 and 226).

CHAPTER ONE ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION TO THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.4 RESEARCH PURPOSE
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
1.9 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY
1.10 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
1.12 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.13 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS .
1.14 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 ADOLESCENCE AS A CONCEPT
2.3 ADOLESCENCE AS A CRITICAL LIFE SPAN
2.4 IMPACT OF PARENTS AND FAMILY SUPPORT
2.5 SCHOOL ATTACHMENT
2.6 COMMUNITY SUPPORT
2.7 PEER SUPPORT
2.8 INDIVIDUAL FACTORS
2.9 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 RESEARCH PARADIGM
3.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.4 RATIONALE FOR USING MIXED METHOD
3.5 SETTING
3.6 Population sample and sampling technique
3.7 DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND PROCEDURES
3.8 DATA VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
3.9 DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS
3.10 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
3.11 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FOUR  QUANTITATIVE RESULTS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 RESULTS OF THE STUDY
4.3 SCHOOL SITUATION
4.4 COMMUNITY /NEIGHBOURHOOD SITUATION
4.5 PEER SUPPORT
4.6 RESPONDENTS SEXUAL ACTIVITY
4.7 FACTORS INFLUENCING POSITIVE SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR
4.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FIVE QUALITATIVE RESULTS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DATA COLLECTION PROCESS
5.3 PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
5.4 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER SIX THE INTEGRATION OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DATA
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 DATA COLLECTION PROCESS
6.3 MIXED-METHOD BACKGROUND
6.4 MIXED-METHOD ANALYSIS
6.5 MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
6.6 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER SEVEN  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS
7.3 SUPPORTIVE STRATEGIES
7.4 MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIES
TO SUPPORT ADOLESCENT POSITIVE SEXUAL BEHAVIOURS
7.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER EIGHT  CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
8.3 CONCLUSION
8.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
8.5 CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
8.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
8.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
REFERENCES
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STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT POSITIVE SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG ADOLESCENTS ATTENDING HIGH SCHOOLS IN ETHIOPIA

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