Ingredients used for bread making in Lesotho

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Traditional Basotho bread

In Lesotho, traditional bread (bohobe) is a general term that covers different types of cereal (maize, wheat, and sorghum) meal-dumplings (linkhoa). The formula for Basotho bread is basically flour, starter, salt and water with exception of a few types of breads that are prepared without the starter. Traditional Basotho bread has been used as early as before 1939 as the staple food in Lesotho (Ashton, 1939). Basotho favour the characteristics of bread and perceive bread as the most important and tastiest food compared to all other cereal products (Ashton, 1939). Bread prepared from wheat is preferred more than maize and sorghum bread by Basotho, mainly because of its desirable soft texture and high volume.
The benefits associated with the use of maize and sorghum in Lesotho for bread making are due to the declining wheat production in recent years. It is therefore evident that consumption of wheat bread becomes very costly and cannot be afforded by poor families (Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Lesotho, 2008). The use of other cereals in bread making on their own or through compositing wheat with either fermented or unfermented sorghum or maize as traditionally practiced by Basotho could make a significant difference in reducing bread costs and providing basic nutrients to the underprivileged Basotho.

Culinary practices

The culinary practices or cuisine is how a food product is prepared and flavoured with certain ingredients following the method that has been tested over time for its production and then presented according to certain cultural specifications to the consumer (Rozin, Fishleler, Imada, Sarubin & Wrzesniewski, 1999; Rozin, 2000:134; Farb & Armelagos, 1980:200). The change in the culinary practices in Lesotho began many years ago; a pseudo-European diet, which includes fine meal bread, replaced the traditional ways of cooking in many households especially in the urban areas (Ashton, 1939).
This shift from the traditional ways of cooking and presenting food in westernized ways is implicated in the loss of traditional food knowledge as it passes on to the younger generation (Raschke, Oltersdorf, Elmalfa, Wahlqvist, Kouris-Blazos & Cheema, 2007). The importance of documenting Basotho culinary practices was long recognized by the Principal Medical Officer of Lesotho (Ashton, 1939), but since the publication in 1939, it has never received any particular attention except for a related publication by Coetzee (1982). In Africa, the traditional ways of preparing, cooking and serving foods have been transferred from one generation to the other without or with very limited documentation (Raschke et al., 2007).
Farb and Armelagos (1980:191) emphasise the fact that cultures are losing their originality of cuisines through unrecorded past. Documentation of culinary practices is important to encourage the pass-over of knowledge and technical culinary skills to the younger generations and to promote utilisation of local ingredients to prepare foods reflecting ethnicity and environmental well-being. In China, where steamed wheat bread is widely prepared, efforts have been made to document the culinary practices with regard to steamed bread (Wu, Chang, Shiau, & chen, 2012; Wu, Liu, Huang, Rayas-Duarte, Wang & Yao, 2012; Wen, Lorenz, Martin, Stewart & Sampson, 1996; Ang, Liu and Huang, 1999:15; Rubenthaler, Huang & Pomeranz, 1990; Sun, 2007). A few studies on steamed wheat bread have also been conducted in South Africa (Lombard, Weinert, Minnaar & Taylor, 2000; Manley & Nel, 1999). In Ghana, Nche, Odamtten, Mout and Rombouts (1996); Nout, Kok, Vela, Nche, and Rombouts (1996) also published studies of steamed maize bread (Kenkey).
These studies focussed on breads prepared according to culinary peculiarities of the countries. In view of the fact that the literature on traditional Basotho bread cuisine is limited, and very old (Ashton 1939), this study considers the importance of documenting the methods of preparing breads at household level and factors influencing the acceptance of bread. Wansink, Sonka and Cheney (2002) examined the influence of culture on behaviours and attitudes towards unfamiliar foods. This study adds another dimension to answer the question on how culture affects perception of consumers towards a traditional staple food product.
There are variations regarding food habits within the same culture (Stankovic & Zevnic, 2011). For example, people of different social classes or occupations eat differently. Differences in food habits are also seen on special occasions or during mourning, as well as at household level. Within the same culture, there are different religious groups that also exhibit varying eating patterns. People of different sex also differ in eating habits and generally, different individuals have different tastes (Frewer & van Trijp, 2007:321; Cleveland, Laroche, Pons & Kastoun, 2009). Identifying these differences in Lesotho, explaining them, and relating them to other facets of social life will make a valuable contribution to existing theory.

TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • Declaration
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Addenda
  • List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
  • Chapter 1:
    • THE STUDY IN PERSPECTIV
    • 1.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
    • 1.1.1 Traditional Basotho bread
    • 1.1.2 Culinary Practices
    • 1.1.3 Factors affecting traditional Basotho bread acceptance
    • (sensory characteristics and culture)
    • 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
    • 1.3 CONTRIBUTION OF THE RESEARCH
    • 1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
    • 1.5 AIM OF THE STUDY AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    • 1.5.1 Research Aim/Goal
    • 1.5.2 Primary objectives and sub- objectives
    • 1.6 STUDY AREA
    • 1.6.1 An overview of the country – Lesotho
    • 1.6.2 Study regions in Lesotho
    • 1.6.3 Cereal production in Lesotho
    • 1.7 OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGY
    • 1.7.1 Population and data collection procedures
    • 1.7.2 Data analysis
    • 1.7.2.1 Quantitative data analysis
    • 1.7.2.2 Qualitative data analysis
    • 1.8 STUDY PLAN
    • 1.9 STUDY LAYOUT
    • 1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    • 1.11 SUMMARY
  • Chapter 2:
    • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE STUDY
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 FOOD ACCEPTANCE THEORY
    • 2.2.1 Physical properties
    • 2.2.2 Sensory Attributes
    • 2.2.3 Descriptive sensory analysis
    • 2.2.3.1 Bread colour
    • 2.2.3.2 Bread volume
    • 2.2.3.3 Bread texture
    • i. Bread Texture by observation/vision
    • ii. Texture by touch/handling
    • iii. Texture by consumption /mouth feel
    • 2.2.3.4 Bread flavour
    • 2.2.4 Perception of sensory attributes
    • 2.2.5 The hedonic perspective
    • 2.3 CULTURAL HEDONIC FRAMEWORK THEORY
    • 2.3.1 Higher context cultures and lower context cultures
    • 2.3.2 Utilitarian and hedonic views on food acceptance
    • 2.3.3 Cultural perspective
    • 2.3.4 Propositions of how culture influences food
    • Acceptance
    • 2.4 SUMMARY
  • Chapter 3:
    • SUPPORTING LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • SECTION A
    • 3.2 CULINARY PRACTICES
    • 3.2.1 Ingredients used for bread making in Lesotho
    • 3.2.1.1 Non-wheat flours
    • 3.2.1.2 Wheat flour
    • 3.2.1.3 Water
    • 3.2.1.4 Sourdough
    • 3.2.1.5 Salt
    • 3.2.2 Bread preparation
    • 3.2.2.1 Dough mixing and development
    • 3.2.2.2 Fermentation/leavening of dough
    • 3.2.2.3 Fermentation temperature
    • 3.2.2.4 Cooking bread
    • 3.2.3 Flavouring
    • 3.2.4 Serving
    • SECTION B
    • 3.3 RECIPE STANDARDISATION
    • 3.3.1 Recipe verification
    • 3.3.2 Product evaluation
    • 3.3.3 Quantity adjustments
    • 3.3.3.1 Bakers’ percentage
    • 3.3.3.2 Sourdough starter in baker’s percentage
    • SECTION C
    • 3.4 OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD ACCEPTANCE
    • 3.4.1 Context
    • 3.4.2 The food context
    • 3.4.3 The eating situation
    • 3.4.4 Influence of environment
    • 3.4.5 The individual’s expectation
    • 3.4.6 Characteristics of individuals
    • 3.4.6.1 Age
    • 3.4.6.2 Socio-economic factors
    • 3.5 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
    • 3.6 SUMMARY
  • Chapter 4:
    • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 PRELIMINARY STUDY
    • 4.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
    • 4.4 ACCESSING THE STUDY REGIONS
    • 4.4.1 Participants’ recruitment for phase
    • 4.4.2 Questionnaire survey participants’ recruitment
    • 4.4.3 Focus group participants’ recruitment
    • 4.5 QUANTITATIVE QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY
    • 4.5.1 Designing the survey questionnaire
    • 4.5.2 Pre – testing and piloting the questionnaire
    • 4.5.3 Data collection – questionnaire survey
    • 4.5.4 Data analysis – questionnaire survey
    • 4.6 FOCUS GROUPS
    • 4.6.1 Designing the focus group guide
    • 4.6.2 Piloting the focus group guide
    • 4.6.3 The number of focus groups
    • 4.6.4 Focus group size
    • 4.6.5 The three parts of focus group discussion
    • 4.6.5.1 Commencing part one of the focus group discussion
    • 4.6.5.2 Data collection in part 1 of focus group discussion
    • 4.6.5.3 Data collection in part 2 of focus group discussion
    • 4.6.5.4 Data collection in part 3 of focus groups discussion
    • 4.6.6 Debriefing
    • 4.7 DATA ANALYSIS FOR FOCUS GROUPS
    • 4.7.1 Data reduction
    • 4.7.2 Grounded theory
    • 4.7.2.1 The classic analysis strategy
    • 4.7.2.2 Preparation for transcripts
    • 4.7.2.3 Coding
    • 4.8 MEMOS
    • 4.9 CONCEPTUALISATION AND OPERATIONALISATION FOR PHASE
    • 4.10 QUALITY OF THE DATA
    • 4.10.1 Representativeness
    • 4.10.2 Content validity
    • 4.10.3 Construct validity
    • 4.10.4 Face validity
    • 4.10.5 Credibility
    • 4.10.6 Tranferability
    • 4.10.7 Dependability
    • 4.10.8 Confarmability
    • 44.11 INCENTIVES
    • 4.12 LUNCH TIME DURING FOCUS GROUP DATA COLLECTION
    • 4.13 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
  • Chapter 5:
    • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF PHASE
    • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    • SECTION A
    • 5.2 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PHASE 1 PARTICIPANTS
    • 5.3 TRADITIONAL BASOTHO BREADS PREPARED FROM WHEAT,
    • MAIZE AND SORGHUM AS WELL AS COMPOSITED FLOURS
    • 5.4 DESCRIPTION OF 10 TRADITIONAL BASOTHO BREADS AND
    • PARTICIPANTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR SENSORY
    • CHARACTERISTICS
    • 5.4.1 Wheat based breads (Leqebekoane, Bohobe ba
    • polata & Liphaphatha)
    • 5.4.2 Perception of participants on dehulled wheat bread products
    • 5.4.2.1 Steamed wheat bread (Leqebekoane)
    • 5.4.2.2 Baked Basotho wheat bread (Bohobe ba polata)
    • 5.4.2.3 Pot roasted wheat breads (Liphaphatha)
    • 5.4.3 Maize based breads (Monepola oa poone e ncha,
    • Monepola oa poone ea thooko o kh’afotsoeng and
    • o haitsoeng, Mochahlama oa poone feela)
    • 5.4.3.1 Green mealie bread (Monepola oa poone e ncha)
    • 5.4.3.2 Dry maize bread (Monepola oa poone
    • ea thooko o kh’afotsoeng and o haitsoeng)
    • 5.4.3.3 Pre-heated dry maize bread (Mochahlama oa poone feela)
    • 5.4.4 Sorghum based breads (Senkhoana)
    • 5.4.4.1 Green sorghum bread (Senkhoana)
    • 5.4.4.2 Dry sorghum bread (Ntsoanatsike)
    • 5.4.5 Composite breads (Mochahlama)
    • 5.4.5.1 Composite maize/ wheat and sorghum
    • bread (Mochahlama)
    • 5.5 SUMMARY
  • Chapter
    • STANDARDISATION, NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND
    • YIELD PERCENTAGE
    • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 6.2 DISCUSSION OF THE STANDARDISATION RESULTS
    • 6.3 NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF STEAMED BASOTHO BREADS
    • 6.4 YIELD FACTOR
    • 6.5 SUMMARY
  • Chapter
    • PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISATION OF
    • TRADITIONAL STEAMED BASOTHO BREADS
    • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 7.1.1 Flour particle size distribution
    • 7.1.2 Sourdough and bread dough pH and TTA
    • 7.1.3 Texture profile analyses and bread appearance
    • 7.1.4 Descriptive sensory analysis
    • 7.1.5 Discussion
    • 7.1.5.1 Bread volume
    • 7.1.5.2 Bread colour
    • 7.1.5.3 Bread aroma and flavour
    • 7.1.5.4 Bread texture
    • 7.2 SUMMARY
  • Chapter
    • CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY, CONTRIBUTIONS TO
    • THEORY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
    • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 8.2 METHODOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS
    • 8.2.1 Research strategy and design
    • 8.2.2 Preliminary study
    • 8.2.3 Face to face questionnaire
    • 8.2.4 Focus group discussions
    • 8.2.5 Observation and demonstrations
    • 8.2.6 Standardisation and sensory evaluation
    • 8.2.7 Quantitative data analysis
    • 8.2.8 Qualitative data analysis
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