INTEGRATION OF THEORETICAL MODELS: COGNITIVE INTELLIGENCE AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

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CHAPTER 3: COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Chapter 3 addresses research aims 2.1. 2.2, and 2.3, and part of 2.5, and 3. It focuses on a discussion of the concepts of cognitive and emotional intelligence as well as their relationship with job performance. The chapter begins by discussing the conceptualisation of cognitive and emotional intelligence and how the same constructs will be defined and applied for the study. The sociodemographic variables influencing cognitive and emotional intelligence are also discussed. The models of cognitive and emotional intelligence are identified, with the researcher motivating for the choice of models adopted for the study. The chapter integrates the theory, including the models of cognitive and emotional intelligence as provided in the literature. The implications of the relationships between the applicable variables for personnel selection will also be outlined in the chapter. The chapter ends by evaluating and synthesising the literature provided, clearly stating the conclusions as well as the research aims and sub-aims that have been covered.

COGNITIVE INTELLIGENCE

The concept of cognitive intelligence will be discussed within the context of the cognitive-social learning paradigm (Mischel, 1999b). The origins of the concept of intelligence, as enshrined in the evolution of the cognitive intelligence theories, are discussed and explained. The section also explains how the concept of cognitive intelligence will be interpreted in this study regarding the adopted model. The relationship between cognitive intelligence, sociodemographic variables and job performance, as well as its relationship with emotional intelligence, will also be discussed in this section.

Conceptualisation of cognitive intelligence

The concept of intelligence has for a long time drawn attention and has become a topical issue in industrial and organisational psychology (Gregory, 2004; Joseph & Newman, 2010; O’Boyle et al., 2011). The history and origins of intelligence appear to be somewhat lengthy and convoluted, with each theorist proposing what they consider to be the best conceptualisation of intelligence (Gregory, 2004). Gregory (2004) notes that, since 1904 when psychologists started researching on intelligence, several definitions have been proposed. Sternberg and Kaufman (1998) thus conclude that the definition of intelligence does not only depend on whom one asks but also on the discipline, time, and place. In summary, Gregory (2004) notes that intelligence is about the ability to reason (acquiring knowledge and using it for future purposes), to learn and to adapt to one’s environment. It is also the ability to think rationallyand to solve factual and novel problems and is regarded as a major determinant for the survival of species (Jensen, 1998; Lam & Kirby, 2002). Gottfredson (1998) points out that general intelligence can be measured through tests utilising verbal, spatial/pattern recognition, and mathematical problems.
(2007) defines cognitive intelligence as the ability to think and solve complex problems of a cognitive nature without relying on knowledge or recall. It appears that the arguments about cognitive intelligence point to the view that the definition is complex and depends on people and times (Gottfredson, 1997). Earlier, Gottfredson (1997) conceptualised intelligence as a general capability involving planning, reasoning and solving problems, thinking in abstract terms, comprehending ideas of a complex nature, and quickly learning from experience.
While Gottfredson (1997) and Rindermann (2007) seem to have perhaps captured what cognitive intelligence may be, the major questions among researchers and early theorists has been whether cognitive intelligence should be viewed as a single, unitary construct or whether it consists of different and specific abilities (Willis, Dumont, & Kaufman, 2011). As part of efforts to answer this question, the next section outlines the development of intelligence theory and ends by providing a conceptualisation of intelligence as interpreted and used in this study.

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Cognitive intelligence: theoretical models

This section provides the definition of cognitive intelligence, outlining its origins by tracing the development of the cognitive intelligence theory. The link between cognitive and emotional intelligence and job performance is discussed. The section culminates in providing the conceptualisation of cognitive intelligence as it will be interpreted in this study.

 Early theories of intelligence

The first theory of cognitive intelligence or general mental ability was proposed by Galton (in 1883), who argued that intelligence is underwritten by keen sensory abilities (Mackintosh,
2011). According to Gregory (2004), Galton argued that intelligence is the degree of keenness of sensory discrimination. Horn and McArdle (2007) argue that, although Galton tried to support his theory by experimentally measuring sensory keenness in terms of reaction and movement time, he found near to zero correlations between the variables he investigated. A more scientific method for conceptualising the concept of cognitive intelligence was therefore required, and this was provided by Spearman (1904, 1923).

Spearman’s g and s

Spearman (1904, 1923, 1927a) proposed that intelligence consists of two factors, namely, general factor (g) and specific factors (s). As a result, Spearman used the concept of factor analysis to support his research on intelligence. Spearman demonstrated that an individual’s performance on a variety of cognitive intelligence test or subtests of intellectual effectiveness was determined by the general factor (g) and another factor (s) specific to the test or subtests (Willis et al., 2011). For Spearman, Willis et al. (2011) argue, the specific factor (s) was not the same for each test or subtests, which means that an individual relies on the more pervasive g, and this predicts performance on a variety of tasks (Floyd, McGrew, Barry, Raphael, & Rodgers, 2009). In Spearman’s terms, the s factors will support the g by providing a common supply of mental energy if it is demanded (Gregory, 2004).
For Spearman, individual differences in g are reflected in one’s ability to use three principles of cognition, that is, apprehension of experience, education of relations and education of correlations (Adey, Csapo, Demetriou, Hautamaki, & Shayer, 2007). Apprehension of experience pertains to the use of experience in solving problems. Education of relations refers to the direct relationship between objects or concepts and education of correlations involves figuring out relations between relationships (Adey et al., 2007). In Spearman’s terms, education of relations and correlation would entail using past experience in finding logic to problem-solving (Gregory, 2004). If Spearman’s conceptualisation of cognitive intelligence is correct, then psychologists should spend more time researching the g factor because it appears to be pervasive in predicting job performance.
When applied to job performance, research suggests that the g accounts for approximately 25% to 50% of cognitive intelligence tests (Floyd et al., 2009). Research also shows that g or general mental ability is a strong predictor of job performance (Schmidt, 2002). Despite ubiquitous evidence suggesting that the g accounts for the most variance in job performance, some challenges have been put forward. For example, some theorists have proposed that domains of cognitive ability might be independent of one another and these include Thurstone’s primary mental abilities (PMA) and Gardner’s multiple intelligences (Gottfredson, 1997). The next section discusses Thurstone’s conceptualisation of cognitive intelligence.

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CHAPTER 1: SCIENTIFIC OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH
1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.4 RESEARCH AIMS16
1.5 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
1.6 THE RESEARCH MODEL
1.7 PARADIGM PERSPECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH
1.8 META-THEORETICAL STATEMENTS, THEORETICAL MODELS AND CONCEPTUAL DESCRIPTIONS
1.9 CENTRAL HYPOTHESIS
1.10 THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS
1.11 METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS
1.12 RESEARCH DESIGN
1.13 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.14 CHAPTER DIVISION
1.15 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 2: META-THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: PERSONNEL SELECTION AND JOB  PERFORMANCE IN THE ZIMBABWEAN ORGANISATIONAL CONTEXT
2.1 PERSONNEL SELECTION METHODS, MEASURES AND MODELS
2.2 JOB PERFORMANCE IN THE ZIMBABWEAN ORGANISATIONAL CONTEXT
2.3 INTEGRATION OF THEORETICAL MODELS OF JOB PERFORMANCE .
2.4 JOB PERFORMANCE AND THE ZIMBABWEAN ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
2.5 COGNITIVE INTELLIGENCE, EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY TYPES, JOB PERFORMANCE AND PERSONNEL SELECTION
2.6 IMPLICATIONS OF JOB PERFORMANCE AND SELECTION MODELS FOR PERSONNEL SELECTION
2.7 EVALUATION AND SYNTHESIS
2.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 3: COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
3.1 COGNITIVE INTELLIGENCE
3.2 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
3.3 INTEGRATION OF THEORETICAL MODELS: COGNITIVE INTELLIGENCE AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
3.4 VARIABLES INFLUENCING COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
3.6 IMPLICATIONS FOR PERSONNEL SELECTION
3.7 EVALUATION AND SYNTHESIS
3.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 4: PERSONALITY
4.1 CONCEPTUALISATION OF PERSONALITY
4.2 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
4.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY TYPES AND JOB PERFORMANCE
4.4 SUMMARY OF PERSONALITY THEORIES9
4.5 INTEGRATION OF PERSONALITY THEORETICAL MODELS
4.6 VARIABLES INFLUENCING PERSONALITY
4.7 THEORETICAL INTEGRATION: TOWARDS CONSTRUCTING A PERSONNEL SELECTION MODEL
4.8 IMPLICATIONS FOR PERSONNEL SELECTION
4.9 EVALUATION AND SYNTHESIS
4.10 REVIEW OF THE AIMS AND SUB-AIMS THAT HAVE BEEN COVERED
4.11 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 5: THEORETICAL INTEGRATION: TOWARDS CONSTRUCTING A THEORETICAL PERSONNEL SELECTION MODEL
5.1 THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF COMPONENTS OF THE PERSONNEL SELECTION
MODEL
5.2 USEFULNESS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PERSONNEL SELECTION MODEL
5.3 IMPLICATIONS OF THE INTEGRATED PERSONNEL SELECTION MODEL
5.4 EVALUATION AND SYNTHESIS: TOWARDS CONSTRUCTING THEORETICAL
PERSONNEL SELECTION MODEL
5.5 REVIEW OF THE AIMS AND SUB-AIMS THAT HAVE BEEN COVERED
5.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
5.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 6: RESEARCH METHOD
6.1 RESEARCH APPROACH
6.2 DETERMINATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE
6.3 CHOOSING AND JUSTIFYING THE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
6.4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
6.5 ADMINISTRATION OF THE PSYCHOMETRIC BATTERY
6.6 SCORING OF THE PSYCHOMETRIC BATTERY
6.7 FORMULATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
6.8 STATISTICAL PROCESSING OF DATA
6.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 7: RESEARCH RESULTS
7.1 PRELIMINARY STATISTICAL ANALYSES
7.2 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
7.3 TEST FOR NORMALITY OF DATA
7.4 CORRELATIONAL STATISTICS
7.5 INFERENTIAL (MULTIVARIATE) STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
7.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 8: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 INTEGRATION AND DISCUSSION
8.2 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.3 LIMITATIONS
8.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
8.5 EVALUATION
8.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
THE INFLUENCE OF COGNITIVE INTELLIGENCE, EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, AND PERSONALITY ON JOB PERFORMANCE: PROPOSING A MODEL FOR PERSONNEL SELECTION

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