Literature review on language contact and language change

Get Complete Project Material File(s) Now! »

Semantics

Terminology should ensure that all new terms created correspond to already existing related terms on semantic level. A correspondence should exist between related terms on both a morphological and semantic level. Therefore proposed terms should follow familiar and established patterns of meaning, which are in use and below are the principles, which terminologists should adhere to:
 Descriptiveness
Descriptiveness is “the degree to which a term’s literal meaning matches its intended meaning” (Gilreath 1993:83). Descriptiveness allows the identification of all linguistic variants of a term (it is assumed that these variants should be cross referenced). In addition every word in a specialised dictionary should be defined or self-contained. In other words, a target user should not look for a definition of a word in another dictionary or other source. In most cases the created terms should be able to define themselves, in other words you can easily understand the meaning of the term through its form. This contention mostly apply to terms created through literal transliteration and compounding, for example, the following compounded terms are descriptive, Chiringazuva <watch
Chiwedzeramutinhiro <resonator Chipaupenyu <oxygen
However, as can be noted from the examples given, the coined terms in most cases violate the appropriate simplicity principle, and this put terminographers in a very compromisingposition.
 Precision
Precision refers“to the degree to which a term clearly designates its concept” (1993:83). This principle shows that a term should reflect the concept characteristics they refer to as precisely as possible, and should not be given a general and widely inclusive meaning. In other words all created terms are to have a precise form and meaning, based on certain specified linguistic needs so that terms reflect designated concepts as precise as possible and ambiguity is to be avoided. This contributes to the capability of the term to be understood by the language users.
However, this guideline has a problem in that language is dynamic and is constantly evolving. Categories are not clear-cut, but evolve over time and adapt new meanings and perspectives. Words either broaden or narrow in meaning. A concept described by a term may change over time because terminology is developing at a faster rate, that certain terms, which were suitable four to six years ago, are no longer representing the concept for which they were devised. In such a case the term has to be changed. This is a problem terminologist’s face; language is dynamic and constantly evolving.
 Accuracy
According to Gilreath (1993:84) “allcreated terms should be free from mistakes or errors. He further postulates that “the quality of the term is determined by the absence or presence of incorrect elements.” Consequently, terminologists should take this simple principle into serious consideration; they should create terms that are error free. A dictionary user is satisfied by his /her ability to properly interpret a new term that is transparent and error free.
Terminographers should cross check on issues of spellings, grammar and presentations of the created terms. The accuracy principle significantly contributes to the credibility and usability nd acceptability of terms by the target users.

Efficiency

It is generally expected that created terms should be efficiently used by the target users. Terminologists should aim at efficient acquisition by users and effective dissemination of terms. In other words, they should create terms that ensure effective and efficient communication. As such terminologists should abide by the principles below:
 Precedent
This principle refers to “the extent to which a proposed designation is in harmony with established designations” Gilreath (1993:87). This principle states thatproposed terms should follow familiar and established patterns of meaning, which are in use. 1S0 (704:200) refer to it as “linguistic appropriateness” whereby proposed terms should follow familiar and established designations in use. In other words, for the proposed term to be acceptable and valid, it must be based on sound knowledge of the target language’s rules of lexical formation. The created term must harmoniously be integrated into the existing set of terminology, (Pavel Tutorial online, 2005). This principle present challenges to terminographers in the sense that in most indigenous languages it is difficult to follow any established order, because already, there is deficiency of scientific and technical vocabulary due to unfavourable language policies, which continuously undermine the growth of African languages. Terminologists, however argue that they have a right and a duty to serve the specificities of concepts of the field represented by the term and as such terms do not necessarily have to be similar to established patterns. Newly coined unknown terms are not necessarily wrong because they are unknown.
 Conciseness,
According to Gilreath (1993:88) “conciseness refers to the orthographic lengthy of a term. In other words it is brevity or shortness.” It is generally believed that in terminology, concise terms are very important. They facilitate efficient communication, as opposed to lengthy terminological data. Due to the conservation of effort in articulation (Sturtevant 1917 cited in Chimhundu, 2002) the longer the word the less likely it is to be used. In this regard, terminologists should endeavour to create short terms, so that they grow to enjoy popular usage. However, the challenge is that accuracy and conciseness of a term is questionable, in that terminology is determined by various factors, some of which are peculiar practices and tradition within a particular field. In this regard, this principle is inappropriate for the medical and legal language, which has long sentences and archaic morphology. It also undermines the productive compounding term creation strategy in the Shona language, as terms created through this strategy are heavily lexically loaded and lengthy coinages. This compromises etymology purity since terminologists will turn to loanwords which adhere to this principle more easily. It means therefore indigenous sensitivised term creation strategies cannot be
effectively implemented for the growth of most indigenous languages.

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Aim of the study
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Significance of study
1.7 Literature review
1.8 Theoretical framework
1.9 Methodology
1.10 Presentation and Data Analysis Plan
1.11 Definition of key terms
1.12 Scope of the study
1.13 Organisation of the study
1.14 Conclusion
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Literature review on language contact and language change
2.3 Language contact situation in Zimbabwe
2.4 Term creation:
2.5 Literature on linguistic principles of term creation .
2.6 Conclusion
Chapter 3: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Defining theoretical framework
3.3 An Overview of Wuster general terminology theory (GTT)
3.4 Cabre’s Communicative Theory of Terminology (CTT)
3.5 Description of the process of formation of new terms …
3.6 Weakness of Cabre’s Communicative Theory of Terminology .
3.7 An Overview of the significance of CTT to this study
3.8 Conclusion
Chapter 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Qualitative research design
4.2 The Research traditions
4.3 Site of the study
4.4 Selection of research participants
4.5 Data collection
4.6 Letter of consent
4.8 Data verification
4.9 Data Analysis
4.10 Ethical considerations
Chapter 5: RESEARCH FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: Duramazwi Remimhanzi
(DR) 
Chapter 6: RESEARCH FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: Duramazwi Reutano
Neurapi 
Chapter 7: RESEARCH FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: Duramazwi
Redudziramutauro neUvaranomwe
Chapter 8: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TERM CREATION STRATEGIES IN THE DR, DRN AND THE DRU 
Chapter 9: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Related Posts