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THEORITICAL UNDERPINNING OF THE STUDY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of the reviewing of the literature of previous scholars, researchers and authors with respect to and emphasis on effective leadership, municipal leadership, functional and dysfunctional municipalities, and their influence on organisational performance and strategic objectives. It has been noted that sufficient literature had explored effective leadership and organisational performance in meeting the strategic objectives of the organisation (including municipalities), however not much has been researched and explored on effective leadership consistency. A theory base underpinning the research has also been explored to ascertain certain aspects and principles of the research, and thereafter, a hypothetical proposition was then developed for the investigation.
It is of course worth mentioning to highlight and reflect that different leadership theories have been researched by various scholars, researchers and authors over the years and all have arrived at several converging conclusions on various aspects of leadership, effective leadership, strategic objectives and organisational performance. Table 2.1 therefore shows and reflect the theoretical base underpinning the study on the principles and aspects of leadership, strategic objectives and organisational performance, and the identification of the fundamental constructs of the research focus that influenced the development of the hypothetical proposition of the research study.

LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND THEORIES

Akers (2018) argues that some of the multiple factors that prescribes a good leader are personality, emotional intelligence, ability to gain buy in, et cetera, and that a combination of leadership traits create an effective leader; whereas on the hand Nichols (2016) argues that traits desirability significantly affects several important organisational outcomes; and that leaders are different and as such have got different level of experiences and desire different leadership traits. It therefore means that leadership traits is fundamental in leadership, and it still one of the important factors to be considered while dealing with leadership dynamics.
Furthermore, Nieuwenhuizen and Rossouw (2008: 65) indicate that the traits model is based on the premise that some people are naturally gifted with certain physical characteristics, personality traits, abilities and special aptitudes; and similarly Pietersen, et al., (2009) argue that traits model are based on the assumptions that certain physical, social and personal characteristics are inherent in leaders. However, Nieuwenhuizen and Rossouw (2008) further acknowledged that in terms of the research, there is no evidence showing that some people are born leaders; whereas Nel (2000) argue that leadership traits will vary from one person to the other. Different leaders behave and conduct themselves differently within and outside the organisation simply because they all have got different background, raised and groomed differently, exposed to different education and career path including professional experience; and therefore, there is no one fits all recipe and formula for leadership.
However, both Hellriegel, Slocum, Jackson, Louw, Satude, Amos, Klopper, Louw, Oosthuizen, Perks & Zindiye (2008) and Nieuwenhuizen and Rossouw (2008) argue that behaviour model focuses on what effective leaders do rather than on what they are, and looks at the difference in actions of effective and ineffective leaders. Moreover, Akers (2018) argues that a right leader is someone with experience, combined with the right personality characteristics, and similarly a good leader is the one with the ability to identify talented people, sustain them and inspire others. This denotes that regardless of our different circumstances, a combination of the right and appropriate leadership traits and characteristics is crucial and essential for one to be an effective leader.
Likewise, Tripathi, Prabhakar & Liddle (2015) argue that leaders universally across national boundaries manifested dynamic, decisive, honest and trustworthy personas with an ability to motivate and network, and emphasise performance and achievements. Moreover, Turn and Baker (2018) argue that leadership style can be categorised into two types namely, task and relationship behaviour; a leader must be able to inspire followers to successfully accomplish a task at hand and also to have a sound and healthy relationship with followers; this will then work together towards organisational effectiveness (realising performance) and thus manifesting the qualities of leadership effectiveness.
According to Davison and Smothers (2015), Theory X and Theory Y have provided valuable insights into managerial styles, and have laid the foundation for many other theories of organisational behaviour and management since their initial conceptualization. In furtherance, Gurbuz, Sahin & Koksal (2014) argue that managerial assumptions and beliefs are important in determining manager’s style of operating and work-related behaviours; and these assumptions are somewhat of pessimistic view of Theory X, and more positive view of Theory Y. Moreover, Theory X reflects that people do not want to work due to low morale and various demotivating circumstances (Davison and Smothers, 2015); and as a result that has negative implications on the performance of the organisation. However, in the contrary, Theory Y reflects that people bore fruits as self-directed work teams, self-management, job enrichment, and empowerment; and moreover employees typically have instinctual motivation to perform (Russ, 2011); meaning that there is a willingness to work for the organisation to realise performance. These behaviours or assumptions influence the manner in which employees perform in the course of their duties; and a deeper understanding from leadership point of view is of paramount important, so that the performance of the organisation can be positively affected.
In terms of situational or contingency model, the behaviour pattern of a leader define the leadership style, and this leadership style is developed over a period of time based on various factors such as experience, education and training (Nel, 2000). Furthermore, contingency theories argue that effective leadership is strongly related to the situation. Contingency theories vary considerably but look at the leader’s behaviour as directly related to either specific work situation, or the abilities and characteristics of the followers (Pietersen et al., 2009).
Fiedler’s Model states that it is difficult to change a leadership style with that the manager has already had great success with, but rather adapt the situation so that it suits the leadership style (Kroon, 1990). Moreover, Hellriegel, et al., (2008) highlight Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership as the one whereby the level of directive and supportive of the leader’s behaviour being based on the level of readiness of the followers, and that the level of follower’s maturity grows over a passage of time. Both Kroon (1990) and Nieuwenhuizen and Rossouw (2008) argue that in terms of Robert House Path-goal Model, the leader should inform the subordinate about the standards that should be maintained in order to achieve the objectives and further satisfy the performance. Moreover, a leader is expected to incorporate four leadership styles namely, directive leadership, supportive leadership, participative leadership and achievement-orientated leadership. According to Hellriegel, et al., (2008), leaders-participative provides set of rules to determine the amount and form of participative decision-making that should be encouraged in different situations; whereas Nel (2000) argues that Likert’s theory has four systems for organisational leadership that gives leaders some direction but provides for total participation and decision by consensus and majority; and are, exploitative autocratic, benevolent autocratic, participative and democratic.
Hellriegel et al., (2008) argue that the type of leadership needed by top managers for tomorrow’s organisations is transformational leadership. The ability to create a vision, set direction, implementation of strategy, motivate followers and realise performance is imbedded on transformational leadership. Moreover, Pietersen et al., (2009) argue that transformational leadership is about leading people to achieve performance beyond expectation resulting in followers feeling better and contributing to the greater good of the organisation; and that is a holistic approach of leadership that in essence explains other leadership models. The transactional leadership is argued by Pietersen et al., (2009) as necessary component of management but is not enough for an organisation to achieve its full potential.
According to Nieuwenhuizen and Rossouw (2008) and Kroon (1990), a charismatic leader has got the ability to inspire, motivate and is determined to achieve a success. Moreover, Kroon (1990:368), argues that a charismatic leader has the ability to confidently communicate his ideas to followers and creates a feeling of excitement and adventure. Charismatic leaders have self-confidence to achieve success (Kroon, 1990; Pietersen et al., 2009).

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EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

Altmae, Turk & Toomet (2013) argue that leadership effectiveness and performance is based on the situational contingency; and that the leader must be able to analyse and influence the performance of followers under different conditions depending on the leader’s leadership style. This therefore means the performance of any organisation is entirely depended on its leadership effectiveness. In addition, the relationship and interaction between the leader and followers is fundamental towards the success or failure of the organisation.
Wiley (2010) defines leadership effectiveness as the ability to give employees a clear picture of the direction of the organisation, the ability to handle challenges, a genuine commitment of producing high-quality products and services, acknowledging the performance of employees towards the success of the organisation, and the ability to inspire confidence in employees. Moreover, Collinson and Collinson (2009) argue that effective leadership is vital for improving the organisational performance. The Institute of Directors in Southern Africa (2009b:19) indicated that the board should provide effective leadership based on an ethical foundation.

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Metropolitan Municipalities Globally
1.3.1 Brazil Municipalities
1.4.1 Botswana Local Government and Municipalities
1.4.2 Mozambique Local Government and Municipalities
1.4.3 Local Government and Municipalities in the context of South Africa .
1.4.4 Common Trepidations of Metropolitan Municipalities in Africa and South Africa
Contradictions between Political Goals and Commercial Goals
Effective and Functional Leadership versus Ineffective and Dysfunctional Leadership
1.7.1 Effective and Functional Leadership
1.7.2 Ineffective and Dysfunctional Leadership
Proposed Conceptual Framework
Research Purpose
Objectives of the Study
Research Questions
Hypothesis
The Significance of the Study
The Rational of the Study
Justification of the Research Problems and Objectives
Assumptions of the Study
Research Report Layout
Conclusion
THEORITICAL UNDERPINNING OF THE STUDY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 36 Introducti
Theoretical Underpinning of the Study
Leadership Traits and Theories
Effective Leadership
Ineffective Leadership
Inconsistency of Leadership and Change
Leadership in Municipalities
Functional Municipalities
Dysfunctional Municipalities
Organisational Leadership
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Conclusion
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research design
Quantitative Research Approach
Qualitative Research Approach
Research Paradigm and Assumption
Reliability
Conclusion
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS RESULTS RELATED TO RESEARCH QUESTION 
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
4.2.1 Demographical Representation of the Participants
4.2.10.1 Correlation between Effective Leadership and Demographical Information
4.2.10.2 Correlation between effective leadership and leadership consistency in the organisation.
CONCLUSION
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
INTRODUCTION
5.1.4 Regression Analysis Results: Strategic Objectives (Section C) is the dependent variable and Effective Leadership (Section B) is the independent variable to answer Research Qu
5.1.5 Regression Analysis Results: Organisational Performance (Section D) is the dependent variable and Effective Leadership Consistency (Section B) is the independent variable
5.1.6 CONCLUSION ON THE REGRESSION RESULTS
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS  DEMOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION OF RESPONDENTS
6.3 SUB-SECTION A: EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
6.4 SUB-SECTION B: STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES
6.5 SUB-SECTION C: ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION TO THE RESEARCH STUDY
7.2.1 What is the impact of consistency on effective leadership at the City of Tshwane Municipality’s top and senior management?
7.2.2 What is the influence of effective leadership consistency in achieving the strategic objectives at City of Tshwane Municipality?
7.2.3 What is the influence of effective leadership consistency on the realisation of organisational performance at City of Tshwane Municipality?
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP CONSISTENCY DEVELOPED FRAMEWORK 291
SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS
Reliability of the Findings
Limitations
Conclusions
REFERENCES
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