MOVING THE DEBATES FROM INJUSTICE TO JUSTICE

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CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH STRATEGY AND DESIGN

This research endeavour attempts to define spatial justice and identify the necessary requirements for its achievement. The study relied on a meta-synthesis of similar studies in the field by using the seminal publication of Noblit and Hare’s (1988) meta-ethnographic approach to executing a meta-synthesis. Downe’s (2005) statement that alludes to the fact that the continuous production of irresponsible islands of knowledge around the same phenomena can result to unnecessary speculation about reinventing the wheel calls for a meta-synthesis in moving towards an attempt to define and develop requirements for spatial justice. The position assumed by Miller et al. (1988), regarding the inability of qualitative researchers to go a step further in their work in an attempt to uncover the subtle and sometimes opaque similarities and differences among findings, further supports this notion.Miller (1976:342) stated, “No single conception of justice can be favoured over another, and that subsequently no certain prescriptions can be made about the justice or injustice of a policy (except perhaps where a policy satisfies all the relevant principles or none of them)”.Additionally, Pirie’s (1983:5) statement about the abundant theories of justice and the criticism of justice as a planning target, intellectual toy and a benchmark for evaluation that inevitably make the acceptance of one approach for application difficult, necessitates a metasynthesis of these concepts in a bid to reach a final definition of spatial justice. The statements by Miller (1976) and Pirie (1983) support both Downe’s (2005) claims with respect to the speculation about reinventing the wheel and the statement by Miller et al. (1988) about qualitative researchers’ failure to expose the subtleties in similarities and differences.In a quest to understand the concept of spatial justice, my strategy was to carry out a metasynthesis of similar theoretical- and scholarly justice-related studies using reciprocal translations. I had to read various theories and discourses related to justice in order to determine the topic similarity adequately. Upon further investigation into the similarity of justice-related topics, I determined that Rawls’ theory of justice, social justice and the city, the right to the city and the just city theory all contained overlapping ideas regarding justice. Rawls’ theory on justice is one of the most important works in political philosophy related to justice. Most of the work on justice published post-Rawls built on his theory and attempted to provide a preferable alternative to Rawls theory of justice. Harvey’s “Social Justice and the City” (1973) is an important work and can largely be related to spatial justice as it focuses on justice in city. Though Harvey’s work relates to justice in the city, it is believed that the same can be applied to rural areas, towns and small cities. The right to the city is also an important discourse related to spatial justice because a discussion of the right to the city is dependent on issues of justice that are equally relevant to the concept of spatial justice. The study on the just city theory is very critical to the study because Fainstein (2010) developed a just theory using work from other scholars including Rawls (1971), Young (1990), Sen (1999) and Nussbaum (2006). The importance of addressing the concerns of other relevant theories of justice in the discussion of the just city is thus evident. This selection of studies is sufficient and most relevant for the development of a definition of spatial justice in addition to the fact that it can be readily applied to spatial situations. Readings from the justice theories and justice related constructs, which assisted me in understanding how injustice is manifested in space, determined the selection of additional scholarly studies.A meta-synthesis of these studies are essential because of the topical similarity, which I believe would be able to advance our knowledge on the concept of spatial justice.After conducting the meta-synthesis, the focus was shifted to the City of Tshwane, which is the reference city for the study. A content analysis was carried out on the City of Tshwane’s Integrated Development Plan1 (IDP), Spatial Development Framework2 (SDF) and the legislation, policies and plans related to the development of the City of Tshwane’s IDP. The analysis assessed the ways in which spatial justice is addressed in these policies and whether this is done sufficiently or not. A socio-spatial analysis of the City of Tshwane was also conducted. The analysis of the City of Tshwane was conducted using the regions of the city.

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DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND AND SCOPE OF STUDY
1.1.1 MOVING THE DEBATES FROM INJUSTICE TO JUSTICE
1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM 
1.3 RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES
CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 
2.1 RESEARCH STRATEGY AND DESIGN 
2.2 METHODS IN RESEARCH 
2.2.1 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
2.2.2 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
2.2.3 MIXED METHOD
2.3 META-SYNTHESIS 
2.3.1 OBJECTIVES OF QUALITATIVE META-SYNTHESIS
2.3.2 APPROACHES TO META-SYNTHESIS
2.3.3 CONSTRUCTING A META-SYNTHESIS STUDY
2.3.3.1 RECIPROCAL TRANSLATION
2.3.3.2 REFUTATIONAL TRANSLATION
2.3.3.3 LINE OF ARGUMENT
2.3.4 ANALYTIC APPROACH: META-ETHNOGRAPHY
2.3.5 PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES AND RATIONALE BEHIND METASYNTHESIS
2.4 CONTENT ANALYSIS 
2.5 SOCIO- SPATIAL ANALYSIS 
2.6 THE METRIC OF JUSTICE
2.6.1 CALCULATING A JUST DISTRIBUTION
2.7 SYNTHESIS OF METHODOLOGY USED
2.7.1 DATA COLLECTION
CHAPTER 3: READINGS – THEORY AND LITERATURE
3.1 CONCEPT AND PRODUCTION OF SPACE 
3.1.1 PRODUCTION OF SPACE
3.2 THEORIES OF JUSTICE AND JUSTICE RELATED CONSTRUCTS
3.2.1 WHY THE SEARCH FOR JUSTICE?
3.3 PLATO’S REPUBLIC 
3.4 RAWLS’ THEORY OF JUSTICE
3.4.1 THE ORIGINAL POSITION
3.4.2 THE PRINCIPLES OF JUSTICE
3.5 SOCIAL JUSTICE 
3.5.1 JUST DISTRIBUTION
3.5.2 TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
3.6 RIGHT TO THE CITY 
3.7 THE JUST CITY THEORY 
3.7.1 EQUITY
3.7.2 DIVERSITY
3.7.3 DEMOCRACY
3.8 CONCEPT OF SPATIAL JUSTICE 
3.8.1 WHY SPATIAL, WHY NOW? / ARE WE IN A SPATIAL MOMENT?
3.9 CRITICISMS OF JUSTICE
3.9.1 A PERSONAL REFLECTION ON THE ABOVE CRITIQUES
3.10 SYNTHESIS OF THEORIES AND SCHOLARLY ARTICLES ON JUSTICE RELATED CONSTRUCTS 
3.11 MOVING FROM HISTORICAL TO SPATIAL – FROM TIME TO SPACE
3.12 NOW SPATIAL JUSTICE
3.13 PROCESSES LEADING TO “UNJUST” GEOGRAPHIES 
3.13.1 SEGREGATION
3.13.1.1 ETHNO-RACIAL PROCESSES OF DISCRIMINATION
3.13.1.2 STRUCTURAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROCESSES.
3.13.1.3 PROCESSES RESULTING FROM INDIVIDUAL DECISIONS
3.13.2 SPATIAL MISMATCH: SEGREGATION AND SPATIAL INJUSTICE (TRANSPORTATION, EMPLOYMENT, IDENTITY, EDUCATION,HOUSING)
3.13.3 SEGREGATION IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (THE AMERICAN APARTHEID)
3.13.3.1 CIVIL DISORDER IN THE UNITED STATES AMERICA, A CASE OF SPATIAL (IN) JUSTICE?
3.13.4 SOUTH AFRICAN APARTHEID
3.13.5 PRIVATOPIAS (GATED COMMUNITIES)
3.13.6 GERRYMANDERING
3.13.7 INEQUALITIES IN DISTRIBUTION AND DISCRIMINATION IN GEOGRAPHIES
3.14 INCIDENCE OF SPATIAL (IN) JUSTICE 
3.14.1 SPATIAL JUSTICE IN LOS ANGELES
3.14.2 SPATIAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN SOUTH AFRICA
3.14.2.1 PUBLIC TRANSPORT USE IN SOUTH AFRICA
3.14.2.2 PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN THE GAUTENG CITY REGION
3.14.2.3 GAUTENG E-TOLL: ANOTHER CASE OF SPATIAL
INJUSTICE?
3.14.3 SPATIAL JUSTICE AND HOUSING IN SOUTH AFRICA
3.14.3.1 RIGHT TO THE CITY AND SPATIAL (IN) JUSTICE: A CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S 2010 WORLD CUP
3.14.4 COURT CASES IN THE CITY OF TSHWANE: A CASE OF SPATIAL (IN) JUSTICE IN THE CITY?
3.14.4.1 GOLDEN THREAD LTD V PEOPLE WHO INTEND INVADING PORTION R25 OF THE FARM MOOIPLAATS 355/JR,
TSHWANE, GAUTENG AND OTHERS (3492/2010) [2010]
ZAGPPHC 262 (2 MARCH 2010) AND
3.14.4.2 SCHUBART PARK RESIDENTS’ ASSOCIATION AND
OTHERS VS CITY OF TSHWANE METROPOLITAN
MUNICIPALITY AND ANOTHER 2013 (1) SA 323 (CC)
3.14.4.3 TSWELOPELE NON-PROFIT ORGANISATION AND OTHERS V CITY OF TSHWANE METROPOLITAN MUNICIPALITY (303/2006) [2007] ZASCA 70; [2007] SCA 70 (RSA); 2007 (6) SA 511 (SCA) (30 MAY 2007)
3.14.5 SYNTHESIS OF PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO, AND INSTANCES OF, SPATIAL (IN) JUSTICE
CHAPTER 4: META-SYNTHESIS – TOWARDS A DEFINITION
AND MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS OF SPATIAL JUSTICE
4.1 IDEAS, THEMES AND KEY PHRASES 
SPATIAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN SOUTH AFRICA SPATIAL JUSTICE AND HOUSING IN SOUTH AFRICA
4.2 TOWARDS A WORKING DEFINITION OF SPATIAL JUSTICE 
4.3 DIRECTIVES TO ACHIEVE SPATIAL JUSTICE 
4.3.1 EQUITY
4.3.1.1 TRANSPORTATION
4.3.1.2 EDUCATION
4.3.1.3 HOUSING
4.3.1.4 EMPLOYMENT
4.3.1.5 HEALTH
4.3.2 DEMOCRACY
4.3.2.1 TRANSPORT
4.3.2.2 EDUCATION
4.3.2.3 HOUSING
4.3.2.4 EMPLOYMENT
4.3.2.5 HEALTH
4.3.3 DIVERSITY
4.3.3.1 TRANSPORT
4.3.3.2 EDUCATION
4.3.3.3 HOUSING
4.3.3.4 EMPLOYMENT
4.3.3.5 HEALTH
4.3.4 JUST DISTRIBUTION
4.3.4.1 TRANSPORTATION
4.3.4.2 EDUCATION
4.3.4.3 HOUSING
4.3.4.4 EMPLOYMENT
4.3.4.5 HEALTH
CHAPTER 5: CONTENT ANALYSIS – THE SOUTH AFRICAN
LANDSCAPE (POLICY AND PRACTICE)
5.1 APPROACH TAKEN IN DRAFTING THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN (COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND BUDGET) 
5.2 MUNICIPAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 
5.3 ANALYSING THE POLICIES AND LEGISLATIONS THAT GUIDED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDP 
5.3.1 THE HOUSING WHITE PAPER (1994)
5.3.2 SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTITUTION (1996)
5.3.3 THE HOUSING ACT (1997)
5.3.4 THE PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL EVICTION FROM UNLAWFUL OCCUPATION OF LAND ACT (PIE) (1998)
5.3.5 PEOPLES HOUSING PROCESS (1998) AND ENHANCED
PEOPLE’S HOUSING PROCESS (2008)
5.3.6 THE RENTAL HOUSING ACT (1999)
5.3.7 SOCIAL HOUSING POLICY FOR SOUTH AFRICA (2003)
5.3.8 THE BREAKING NEW GROUND POLICY (2004)
5.3.9 INCLUSIONARY HOUSING POLICY (2007)
5.3.10 SOCIAL HOUSING ACT (2008)
5.3.11 WHITE PAPER ON TRANSPORT (1996)
5.3.12 MOVING SOUTH AFRICA (1998)
5.3.13 ACTION AGENDA (1999)
5.3.14 THE NATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT TRANSITION ACT (2000) (NLTTA)
5.3.15 NATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK (NLTSF) (2006-2011)
5.3.16 TAXI RECAPITALISATION POLICY (2008)
5.3.17 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2030 (2012)
5.3.18 SPATIAL PLANNING AND LAND USE MANAGEMENT ACT (2013)
5.4 SYNTHESIS OF ANALYSIS OF POLICY AND LEGISLATION
CHAPTER 6: SOCIO-SPATIAL ANALYSIS:
UNDERSTANDING/EXPLORING THE APPLICATION OF
SPATIAL JUSTICE IN THE CITY OF TSHWANE (EDUCATION,
EMPLOYMENT, HOUSING, HEALTH AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT)
6.1 THE RELEVANCE OF A SOCIO-SPATIAL ANALYSIS 
6.2 THE RELEVANCE OF THE CITY OF TSHWANE IN UNPACKING OR EXPLORING THE FRAGMENTS OF SPATIAL JUSTICE 
6.3 PLANNING REGIONS OF THE CITY OF TSHWANE
6.4 SYNTHESIS OF SPATIAL JUSTICE IN THE CITY OF TSHWANE: EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, HOUSING, HEALTH AND PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION 
6.5 THE IMPACT AND RELEVANCE OF SPATIAL JUSTICE FOR SOUTH AFRICA. 
CHAPTER 7: SYNTHESIS, CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONCLUSION 
7.1 INTRODUCTION – REFLECTING ON THE PREVIOUS CHAPTERS 
7.2 BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER 
7.3 RESEARCH FINDINGS 
7.4 CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY 
7.5 TOWARDS A MORE SPATIALLY JUST SYSTEM
7.6 BASIS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 
7.7 CONCLUSION 
REFERENCES 

 

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