Nutritional value of E. delegorguei 

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Insects as human food

Insects have played an important role in the history of human nutrition, and it is probable that the first hominids in Africa were eating insects. They are good source of protein, with high fat content (and thus energy) and many important minerals and vitamins (DeFoliart, 1992). One major problem with consumption of insects in southern Africa is that many people are more into Western lifestyle and that makes them ashamed or ignorant of consuming nsects. The more educated population, are more reluctant to admit that entomophagy still exists. This can affect populations that are economically marginal, as they cannot afford meat or fish in order to provide protein. It is well documented that iron deficiency is a major problem in women’s diets in developing countries, especially in poorer continents such as Africa (Orr, 1986). Vegetarians also are at risk of zinc deficiency because zinc content in vegetables is very low; as such eating of insects should be promoted as insects also contain high levels of iron and Zinc (DeFoliart, 1992).
Consumption of insects is widespread especially in Africa and Asia. In the Bikita district of Zimbabwe, Encosternum delegorguei which commonly known as “harurwa” is much sought after and can be bartered for grain (Wilson, 1990; O’Flaherty, 2003). Harurwa is such an important insect that it is also distributed as gifts to the local chiefs, district administrator and the local police. The management of the forest in which harurwa is found is regulated by a team made up of a representative of 24 villages in Bikita district, with members rotating every year. Harurwa is a highly
priced insect and is therefore an important source of income in Bikita, Central Zimbabwe (O’Flaherty, 2003). Other species that are consumed in Zimbabwe includes the Pentascelis remipes (local name “magodo”) which feeds on Combretum molle and C. imberbe as we as. P. wahlbergi (local name “nharara”) that feeds on Gardenia resiniflua (mutara) and occur in clusters. The insects are a delicacy among the Manyika and Ndau tribes. Gonimbrasia belina, the”mopane-worm”, is a particularly a major food item and is collected, transported and sold on an industrial basis at price of Z$0.60 per 100 g dry (during mid-1986), its price is similar to that of fresh beef (Wilson, 1990).
Caterpillars, termites, locusts, honeybees and ants are among the favorites and mostly consumed insects. Harvesting of insects is seasonal, but they can be collected, processes and stored for longer periods. In southern Africa, the most widely consumed insects are mopane worms, locusts, bugs, termites, honeybees and crickets.
Chavunduka, (1975) has highlighted the significant role of insects in curing kwashiorkor. According to the above author, winged termites and giant crickets (Brachytrupes membranaceus) are frequently consumed in Zimbabwe.
They are collected during rainy season. These insects are processed by grilling or frying without additional fat or they can be eaten raw. They are storable for later use. In South Africa, mopane worm (Imbrasia belina) is the most frequently consumed insect. Quin, (1959) reported that the Pedi tribe preferred mopane worm to beef and the availability of mopane worm could seriously affect the sale of beef. This worm is also widely consumed in other parts of southern Africa, such as Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Consumption of mopane worms can to a substantial degree supplement the predominantly cereal diet with many of the protective nutrients (Dreyer and Wehmeyer, 1982).


1. Insects
1.1 Insects as human food
1.2 Chemical composition of insects
1.3 Why care for insects?
1.4 Economical importance of insect
1.5 Insects as animal feed
1.6 Insects as source of drugs
2. The plant
2.1 The use of plants extracts
2.2 The problem of drug resistance
2.3 Importance of antioxidants
2.3.1 Flavonoids
3. The host plants
3.1 D. viscosa
3.1.1 Taxonomy and description of D. viscosa
3.1.2 Biological activity of D. viscosa
3.1.3 Major chemical constituents of D. viscosa
Problem statement
Aim of the study
Objectives of the study
2.1 Insect Experiment Procedures
2.1.1 Collection of insects
2.1.2 Traditional Knowledge of Insects Preparation
2..2.1 Nutritional analysis of insects Determination of Macro Nutrients and Amino Acids Determination of Mineral Determination of Vitamins
2.2 Plant Experimental Procedures
2.2.1 Collection and Identification of the Host plant
2.2.2 Plant preparation
2.3 General Materials and Methods
2.3.1 Extraction Procedure
2..3.2 Thin Layer Chromatography Analysis
2.3.3 Bioassays Bioautography assay Microdilution assay Antioxidant assays
2.3.4 Statistical analysi
CHAPTER 3 Nutritional value of E. delegorguei 
3.1 Background
3.2 Results and Discussion
3.3 Conclusion
CHAPTER 4 Medicinal values of insects
4.1 Background to use of insects
4.1.1 Use of insects in folk medicine
4.1.2 Insects as a source of new drugs
4.2 Results and Discussion
4.3 Conclusio
CHAPTER 6 Isolation of bioactive compounds from host plant (D. viscosa) 
CHAPTER 7  Biological activity of isolated compounds from D. viscosa
CHAPTER 8 General Discussion and Conclusion


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