Paradigms shifting: moving between two worlds

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CHAPTER 2: DESCRIBING THE PROBLEM – POVERTY

Introduction

Poverty is a crime against humanity. (Smith 2005:3) says it is “the systematic exploitation, theft, and abuse not only by the rich but by the government officials ostensibly there to help: the poor must pay larger bribes, as a share of their income, than the rich just to survive”. Because of poverty people have to live a life that they do not want. It puts them at the mercy of abuse, violence and oppression. It leads to a life of fear and anxiety (Pieterse 2001:45). Every nation of the world should fight against poverty and its causes. Erasmus (2005:143) stated that “in pre -democratic South Africa the ideology of apartheid protected the interests of the minority white Afrikaner people of the national party”. The majority of the people of South Africa were forced to live in poverty. After the first democratic election people were politically free but economically still living in slavery (Nieman 2006:597) stated that “Martin Luther King promoted the concept that freedom without economic empowerment and access to socio-economicopportunity and a resource was not freedom”.Pick et al. (2008:165), “The millennium Declaration pledges to free men, women, and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty”. This is one of the goals set by the United Nations to be fulfilled in 2015.Poverty is a crime because it causes so many social ills in the world. “Poverty is still the gravest insult to human dignity”(Kane & Kirby 2003:42). In Luke 4: 18, it is written “the spirit of the Lord is upon me,Because He has anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor…” Jesus declared that His ministry was to focus on poor people. He came to set them free from the shackles of poverty. Jesus valued those people who were not valued by the systems of the time.Furthermore, it can be put it this way, “Poverty was seen as denying people adequate food, housing, education, and health care, and being responsible for forcing people to lead an undesirable lifestyle, such as child prostitute”( Delton et al.2008:498). Poverty removes dignity from the human being created in the image of God. There should be a multi approach in the fight against poverty. I do not think it could a uni-approach in a battle against poverty and its causes. The ANC-led government inherited poverty and inequality in 1994. (Nieman 2006:597) says almost half (48%) of South Africans live in conditions of extreme poverty. The chances and opportunities do not exist to lead a long and healthy life with the freedom to enjoy a decent standard of living with dignity, selfrespect and respect for others.A major concern for the African National Congress led government was how to deal with the main issues though there have been many interventions through creating policies and programs of action not enough has been done.How can a church community get involved in helping the poor people and assist in working for equality for all people.

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Chapter 1: Positioning 
1.1 Introduction 
1.2 Motivation 
1.3 Research gap 
1.4 Research problem
1.4.1 What is identity?
1.4.2 Formation of identity
1.4.2.1 Marcia‟s identity status
1.4.2.2 Grotevant‟s process of Model of identity
1.4.2.3 Berzonky‟s identity styles
1.4.2.4 Identity formation as social construction
1.5 Biblical perspectives on identity formation 
1.5.1 God‟s image and likeness in man
1.5.2 The fall of man
1.5.3 The nature of sin
1.5.4 The result of sin
1.5.5 Righteousness
1.6 Research objectives 
1.7 Paradigmatic approach 
1.7.1 Introduction
1.7.2 Paradigms shifting: moving between two worlds
1.7.2 Modernist‟s epistemology
1.7.2 Postmodernist‟s epistemology
1.7.3 Language
1.7.4 Discourse definition
1.7.5 Deconstruction
1.7.6 Transversal rationality
1.8. Social constructionism 
1.9 Theological positioning 
1.9.1 Theology
1.9.2 Post-modern theolog
1.9.3 Postfoundationism: Beyond conflict and consonance
1.9.4 Practical theology
1.9.5 Exploring practical wisdom understanding
1.9.6 Postfoundationalist practical theology
1.10 Narrative theory, Recoeur and hermaneutics 
1.10.1 Narrative research
1.11 Social constructionism and postfoundationalism 
1.12 Ethical positioning 
1.13 Research design 
1.13.1 Specific context is defined
1.13.2 In-context experiences are listened and described
1.13.3 Interpretations of experiences are made, described, and developed in collaboration with co-researchers
1.13.4 A description of experiences as continually informed by traditions of interpretations
1.13.5 A reflection on religion and spirituality aspect, especially as it is understood and experienced in a specific situation
1.13.6 A description of experience, thickened through interdisciplinary investigation
1.13.7 The development of alternative interpretations that points beyond the local community
1.14 Profiles of my co-researchers 
1.14.1 Miss JM
1.14.2 Mr. S. and Mrs. Z
1.14.3 Mr. T and Mrs. T
1.14.4 Mr. P
1.14.5 Mr. TN
1.14.6 Mr. JR
1.14.7 Mrs. J
1.15. Journey of my life story 
1.15.1 Why share my life story?
1.16 The context of Nellmapius
1.16.1 Population
1.16.2 Economic aspect
1.16.3 Educational aspect
1.16.4 Health aspect
1.16.5 Early childhood development centers
1.16.6 Taverns
1.17 Outlines of Chapters
Chapter 2: Description of the problem 
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Definition of poverty 
2.2.1 Poor people‟s definition of poverty
2.2.2 Definition of poverty by non poor people
2.2.3 Poverty as a discourse
2.3 Global poverty 
2.4 Poverty trap or structural poverty 
2.5 Africa 
2.6 South Africa 
2.6.1 Apartheid
2.6.2 Legacy of apartheid
2.6.2.1 Exclusion of the poor from the riches of the land
2.6.3 The history of inequality in South Africa
2.6.4 Meta-theoretical perspective
2.6.5 Whiteness
2.7 African mind 
2.7.1 Reflection on prelogicality and mysticality
2.8 Measurement of poverty 
2.9 Describing poverty, biblical perspective
2.9.1 God cares for the poor
1.9.2 Early church
2.9.3 Causes of poverty-biblical perspective
2.9.4 Spiritual poverty
2.9.5 Psychological perspective
2.10 Globalization 
2.11 Impact of poverty 
2.11.1 Poverty and identity formation process
2.11.2 Poverty and limitations to opportunity structures
2.11.3 Poverty and stress
2.11.4 Stigma and poverty
2.11.5 How poverty affects identity process
2.12 Conclusion 
Chapter 3: Community transformation
3.1 Introduction 
3.2 Transformation as an action 
3.2.1 Defining the concept of transformation
3.2.2 Transformation on an individual level
3.2.3 Social transformation
3.2.4 Transformation as a story of action in the bible
3.3 Development 
3.3.1 Defining the concept of development
3.3.2 Economic development
3.3.3 Post-development theory
3.3.4 What is the post-development?
3.4 Developing and empowering the community 
3.4.1 Defining the concept empowerment
3.4.2 Four elements of empowerment
3.4.3 Empowerment through education
3.4.4 Researcher‟s reflection on empowerment
3.4.4.1 Increasing the capacity
3.4.4.2 Dignified decent life
3.4.4.3 Freedom of choice
3.4.4.4 Participation in the process of empowerment
3.4.4.5 Expansion of assets
3.4.4.6 Entrepreneurship spirit: mpofutsho wa phatla
3.4.4.7 Empowerment-the power of participation
3.5 Transformational development
3.5.1 Convergent stories
3.5.1.1 Biblical stories
3.5.1.2 Creation
3.5.1.3 The story of the fall
3.5.1.4 Exodus-liberation story
3.5.1.5 Story of Jesus
3.5.1.6 The mission of Jesus
3.5.1.7 Death of Jesus on the cross
3.5.1.8 The faith-based organization and social transformation
3.5.1.9 The Holy Spirit
3.5.1.10 Three important theological ideas
3.6 Community story 
3.7 The story of development agent 
3.8 The role of the spirituality in social transformation in South Africa 
3.8.1 Spirituality-the spirit‟s way in social transformation
3.9 My own reflection
Chapter 4: Experiences are listened to and described \
4.1. Introduction 
4.2. How did I choose them? 
4.3. How did I collect the data 
4.3.1 The questions have asked the co-researchers are as follows
4. 4 Language used 
4.2 Mrs J‟s narratives 
4.3 Miss JM‟s story 
4.4 Mrs T‟s story as a co-researchers 
4.5 Mr. JR‟s view on poverty 
4.6 Mr. T‟s story 
4.7 Mr. TN‟s story 
4.8 Mr. S‟s story 
4.9 Mrs. Z‟s story 
4.10 Researcher‟s view on poverty
4.11 The themes identifies in the context and conversing with literature and other disciplines 
4.12 Conclusion 
Chapter 5: Description of experiences, thicken through interdisciplinary Investigation 
5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Postfoundationalist or interdisciplinary 
5.3 Interdisciplinary conversation 
5.4 Mr. Lekola‟s view (Education)
5.5. Pastor A. Spaumer‟s view (Church)
5.6 Ms Freeman‟s view (Social work)
5.7 Ms Magakwe‟s view( Nursing)
5. 8 Researcher‟s reflection on interdisciplinary 
5. 9 Reflection on God‟s presence
Chapter 6: Alternative interpretation pointing beyond the local context 
6.1 Introduction 
6.2 Postfoundationalism or interdisciplinary 
6.3 Voices involve in creating the new story 
6.4 An alternative story 
6.5. Suggested outcomes for community transformation that can be taken beyond specific
6.8 Equipping the poor people with skills for community transformation 
6.9 Poverty has a negative impact on identity formation
Chapter 7: Reflection
7.1 Introduction 
7.2 How did feel before research project 
7.3 How did I feel during the research project 
7.4 How did I feel after the research project 
7.5 Positioning 
7.6 Narrative approach 
7.7 Excitement of the new story 
7.8 Identity formation and poverty 
7.9 Empowerment 
7.10 Conclusion 
Bibliography 

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