Physico-chemical Characteristics of Lake Tana

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CHAPTER 2 THE IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL, METALS AND BACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE TANA

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, much concern has been arising regarding environmental pollution due to toxic chemicals resulting from domestic, agricultural, mining and industrial activities. Pollution by nutrient load, disease causing agents, metals and other toxic chemicals has been of considerable public concern (Elsayed and Alaa, 2013). These situations are the result of point source and non point source pollution which causes change in physicochemical parameters of Ethiopian lakes.These are clear alarms and indications of water quality degradation of lakes in the country (FDRE EPA, 2004). These problems also apply to Lake Tana. So, the water quality analysis (physicochemical, metals and bacterial characteristics) can provide an ideal indicator response serving as a pertinent measure for water quality goals of Lake Tana. Therefore, this chapter evaluates Lake Tana water quality on the basis of its great importance to Ethiopia, in particular to the study area.

OBJECTIVES

1. Analyze long-term impacts of agricultural, industrial and urban activities on Lake Tana.
2. Assess human impacts on water quality using physico-chemical measurements (EC, BOD5,pH, TSS, TDS, COD, and To), inorganic pollutants (NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, SO42-, S2- and NH3),
metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, Fe and Cd) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, Fecal coliform and Total coliform)

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.3.1 Water Quality Sampling and Analysis
2.3.1.1 Sample Collection
Water samples from the lake were collected along the shorelines of the lake in Bahir Dar study area, Gorgora study area, Tana Kirkos study area, Megech study area for human influenced sites and Ambobahir study area as a reference site at all sampling sites seasonally in wet and dry seasons which were used for comparison for one year (June 2014 to May 2015). Water samples were collected in plastic bottles from each site two times a year with six months interval and water quality parameters were tested. One liter polyethylene cans which were previously cleaned, rinsed and washed with deionised water and then rinsed with sample water several times were used for collection of samples. After sampling, samples were put in a cooler box containing ice packs to preserve the sample matrix during transportation to the laboratory in 48 hours. Water samples were taken based on water sampling technique (Procedure of APHA) (APHA, 2005). Surface water samples were collected seasonally in selected sampling zones 10cm below the surface of the lake water as used by Das and Acharya (2003). The samples were brought to Dashen brewery and Bahir Dar university water analysis laboratories within 48 hours and analyzed following the protocols used for water sample analysis (APHA, 2005).
2.3.1.2 Physicochemical, Metal and Bacteria Analyses
Water samples were collected for analysis of Sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3),orthophosphate (PO43-), sulphide (S2-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) as chemical variables and temperature, pH and electrical conductivity included as physical variables were measured following water quality assessment protocols. Water temperature was measured by using a glass thermometer (China), pH was measured using pH meter and electrical conductivity was measured using conductivity meter (HACH DR/2010, USA) according to HACH instructions.NH3, NO2-, PO4 3-, S2-, SO4 2-, TSS, TDS and COD were determined with spectrophotometer (HACH DR/2010, USA) according to HACH instructions that uses standard chemicals and instruments. BOD5 and nitrate were determined using standard methods for examination of wastewater manual that uses standard chemicals and instruments, Jenway Model 6305 UV/Vis. Spectrophotometer (APHA, 2005 and as used by Mohamed et al., 2009).Metals: Cr, Cu, Mn, As, Pb, Fe and Cd were determined using atomic absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck Scientific Model 210 VGP, USA) according to standard methods (APHA, 2005). Coliforms were tested by the Most Probable Number test (MPN) and Membrane Filtration tests (MF). The MPN technique, referred to as the Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique, is a technique based on serial dilution of the sample in test tubes containing a selective liquid media. At the end of the incubation, the analyst counts the number of positive test tubes to estimate the number of coliforms in the sample. The MF test refers to a technique where 100 ml of the sample is filtered onto a membrane. The membrane is placed on a growth selective media for coliforms. After incubation, colonies were counted as used by Rhonda et al. (2006).

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CONTENT PAGE
DECLARATION 
DEDICATION 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
ACRONYMS
ABSTRACT 
CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
1.4 THE RESEARCH (STUDY) LIMITATIONS 
1.5 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY 
1.7 RESEARCH SETTING (THE STUDY AREA) 
1.7.1 Location and Characteristics of Lake Tana
1.7.2 Socio-Economic and Biological conditions of LakeTana
1.7.2.1 Socio-Economy
1.7.3 Flora and Fauna
1.7.3.1 Macrophytes
1.7.3.2 Fishing
1.7.3.3 Avifauna
1.7.3.4 Crocodiles and Hippopotamus
1.7.4 Physico-chemical Characteristics of Lake Tana
1.7.5 Environmental changes in Lake Tana
1.7.6 The Study Areas and Sampling Sites
1.7.7 Reference Conditions
1.8 THE STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY 
1.9 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 
1.10 THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 
CHAPTER 2  THE IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL, METAL AND BACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE TANA
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 OBJECTIVES 
2.3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 
2.3.1 Water Quality Sampling and Analysis
2.3.1.1 Sample Collection2.3.1 Water Quality Sampling and Analysis
2.3.1.2 Physicochemical, Metal and Bacteria Analyses2.3.1 Water Quality Sampling and Analysis
2.4 DATA ANALYSIS 
2.5 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 
2.5.1 Physicochemical Parameters
2.5.1.1 Temperature
2.5.1.2 pH (Power of Hydrogen)
2.5.1.3.EC (Electrical Conductivity)
2.5.1.4 BOD5 (Biological Oxygen Demand)
2.5.1.5 COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)
2.5.1.6 TSS (Total Suspended Solids)
2.5.1.7 TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)
2.5.1.8 NO3-(Nitrate)
2.5.1.9 NO2-(Nitrite)
2.5.1.10 NH3 (Ammonia)
2.5.1.11 PO4 3- (Phosphate)
2.5.1.12 SO4 2- (Sulphate)
2.5.1.13 S2- (Sulphide)
2.5.2 Metals
2.5.2.1 Cr (Chromium)
2.5.2.2 Mn (Manganese)
2.5.2.3 As (Arsenic)
2.5.2.4 Cd (Cadmium)
2.5.2.5 Cu (Copper)
2.5.2.6 Pb (Led)
2.5.2.7 Fe (Iron)
2.5.3 Bacteria
2.5.3.1 E. Coli
2.5.3.2 F. Coliform
2.5.3.3 T. Coliform
2.5.4 Water Quality Index of Lake Tana
2.5.4.1 Standard values and unit weights of water quality parameters of the Lake Tana
2.5.4.2 WQI of Lake Tana
2.5.4.2.1 WQI of Wet Season Water Samples
2.5.4.2.1 WQI of Dry Season Water Samples
2.5.4.2.3 WQI of Lake Tana mean water samples
CHAPTER 3  ASSESSMENTS OF THE IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON LAKE TANA USING MACROINVERTEBRATE INDEX 
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 OBJECTIVES 
3.3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 
3.3.1 Macroinvertebrate Sampling
3.3.1.1 Materials Used in Macroinvertebrate Sampling
3.3.1.2 Sample Collection
3.3.1.3Identification
3.3.1.4 Biodiversity Analysis
3.3.2 Data Analysis
3.3.3 Macroinvertebrate Metric Selection
3.3.3.1 Metrics
3.3.3.2 Index
3.3.3.3 Multimetric Index
3.4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 
3.4.1 Macroinvertebrate Richness
3.4.2 Macroinvertebrate Composition
3.4.3 Macroinvertebrates Tolerance
3.4.4 Biological Indices
3.4.4.1 FBI (Family Biotic Index)
3.4.4.2 Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H′)
3.4.4.3 Simpson’s Diversity Index (D)
3.4.4.4 Index Biological Monitoring Working Party (IBMWP)
3.4.4.5 Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT)
3.4.4.6 Taxa Richness (TR)
3.4.4.7 EPT Index
3.4.4.8 Percent Contribution of Dominant Family (% DF)
3.4.4.9 Community Loss Index (CLI)
3.4.5 Metric Index Development for Lake Tana
3.4.6 Index Development for Lake Tana
3.4.7 Correlation of Physicochemical Variables and Macroinvertebrates
CHAPTER 4  ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON LAKE TANA USING MACROPHYTES AS BIOINDICATORS 
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 OBJECTIVES 
4.3 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.3.1.1 Sample Process, Methods and Identification
4.3.2 Data Analysis
4.4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 
4.4.1 Macrophyte Richness
4.4.2 Macrophyte Abundance
4.4.3 Macrophyte Composition
4.4.4 Biological Indices
4.4.4.1 Beta diversity Index
4.4.4.2 Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H’)
4.4.4.3 Simpson’s Dominance Index (D)
4.4.4.4 Simpson’s Diversity Index (1-D) or (D)
4.4.4.5 Margalef’s index (M’) Measurement of Species Richness
4.4.4.6 Evenness Index (E)
4.4.4.7 Schaumburg Trophic Index
4.4.5 Eichhornia crassipes /Water Hyacinth
4.4.6 Correlation among different macrophytes of Lake Tana wetalnds
4.4.7 Pollution Indicator Macrophyte species
CHAPTER 5  THE IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON LIVELIHOOD OF LAKE TANA VICINITY COMMUNITY
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
5.3 OBJECTIVES 
5.4 MATERIALS AND METHODS 
5.4.1 Methods of Data Collection
5.4.2 Research Design
5.4.3 Data Analysis
5.5 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 
5.5.1 Lake Tana and its Wetland Resources
5.5.1.1 Land
5.5.1.2 Vegetation Resources
5.5.1.3 Wildlife Resources
5.5.1.4 Cultural Landscapes
5.5.2 Functions of Lake Tana and its Wetlands
5.5.2.1 Vegetation and Forest Functions
5.5.2.1.1 Forests Social Functions
5.5.2.1.2 Ecological Functions of Forests
5.5.2.1 3 Economic Functions of Forests
5.5.2.2 Fisheries
5.5.2.3 Energy
5.5.2.4 Water Transport
5.5.2.5 Agriculture
5.5.3 Ecosystem Goods and Services Provided by Lake Tana Wetland
5.5.3.1 Provisioning services
5.5.3.2 Regulating Services
5.5.3.3 Supporting Services
5.5.3.4 Cultural services
5.5.4 Threats and Challenges of Lake Tana
5.5.4.1 Climatic Change
5.5.4.2 Population Pressure
5.5.4.3 Poverty .
5.5.4.4 Endangered Fish Resources and Bird Species
5.5.4.5 Land Use Change
5.5.4.5.1 Land-use Systems in Wetlands
5.5.4.5.2 The Land Tenure System
5.5.4.5.3 Registering Recession Farmland
5.5.4.5.4 Registering and Delineating Wetlands
5.5.4.6 Deforestation
5.5.4.7 Urbanization
5.5.4.8 Environmental pollution
5.5.4.9 Weak Institutional Coordination
5.5.5 Livelihoods
5.5.5.1 Livelihood Components
5.5.5.2 Lake Resources Extraction for Livelihood
5.5.5.3 Socio- economic Characteristics of Lake Tana
5.5.5.4 Livelihood System
5.5.5.5 Changes in Livelihoods
5.5.5.6 Environmental Implications of Livelihood Diversification
5.5.6 Farmers´ Views on Wetlands
5.5.7 Lake Resource Sustainability Trends
5.5.8 Lake Tana Governance and its Natural Resources Management
CHAPTER 6  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 
6.1 CONCLUSION 
6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 
REFERENCES
APPENDICES 

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