Reasons for addressing corruption in education

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CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON CORRUPTION PREVALENCE AND PREVENTION

INTRODUCTION

In chapter 2, the researcher reviewed literature on combating corruption to enhance learner academic achievement. The aim of the review was to provide a theoretical foundation for the study. Theoretical perspectives are critical in a study of this nature. Theories are defined as sets of ideas that argue in a certain direction to justify the existence of a given phenomenon (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 2010). In this respect, the theories to be used in informing this discussion are inclined to development issues as well as socially related matters with a bearing on corruption. Fataar (2016:1) defines a theory as a lynchpin around which a doctoral thesis revolves. In reviewing literature for this study, several theories are going to be explored. The motivation to triangulate on theoretical frameworks comes from the fact that the key assumptions of these theories make a significant contribution to the problem under discussion. Broadly this study focuses on the problem of corruption, hence the fundamental assumptions of these theories will be distilled to address this problem. Furthermore, the specific focus of this investigation targets how corruption can be combatted to enhance academic achievement in the education of learners in four (4) public secondary schools in the Harare metropolitan province of Zimbabwe.As such, in reviewing the selected theories in this section, specific attention is drawn to addressing this critical angle/dimension at all cost. It must be emphasised though that the selection of these named theories does not render those left out ‘useless’. In this chapter,therefore the researcher presents and discusses seven (7) theories that provide relevant guidance to the study. The argument for using multi-theories would provide an opportunity for one theory to bridge the possible weaknesses of the other. This complementary effect is critical in providing a substantiated review of the literature, hence the use of one theory
falls short of addressing novel aspects related to combating corruption. A detailed discussion of the selected theories is presented in the sections that follow.

THE GAME THEORY

The game theory is credited for providing a plausible explanation on manifestations and dynamics of corruption. In tracing the interactions between people in society in the context of corruption, many explanations have been offered. Sadedin (2015:5) asserts “In order to detect corruption, we need to understand why it arises in the first place,thus we need the game theory. A game is a stylised scenario in which each player receives a payoff determined by the strategies chosen by all players.”
3.2.1 Key principles of the game theory
According to Bayer (2013:36) the game theory of corruption submits that corruption is a kind of transaction between the briber and bribeee who do not know each other perfectly. The game theory makes use of intermediaries (middlemen). The intermediaries usually use their respectively longer term and more trust based on relationships to decrease detection risk. By reducing the likelihood of corruption detection, the intermediaries serve corrupt transactions .Furthermore,in return for their service the intermediaries get commission. Against this background, it follows that in the education sector corruption is a social and ethical problem which has both a demand and a supply side. Given this situation, it follows that in a secondary school set up, the briber and the bribee usually engage in a ‘game’ where they express their personal interests in pursuit of private gains and this has a negative effect on teaching and learning processes. Luyan and Lianja (2011:105) maintain that in most cases the briber often wants to obtain benefits which far outweigh the cost of the bribe paid. Therefore, in this general bribery pattern, schools and colleges have been prejudiced by the key players (briber and bribee)  as they engage in corrupt transactions. It is also imperative to note that in engaging in this game some cost benefit analysis is undertaken by the key players; hence in some cases it may determine the amount or level of bribe to be paid. This amount may rise due to the moral cost or risk cost involved. Thus, it can be highlighted that the amount of bribe paid to secure a form to get a place for one’s child may not be the same compared to that paid to have access to a leaked examination paper. Thus, the game theory provides a plausible analysis of the actual engagement of a corruption case.
3.2.2 Critique of the game theory
According to Jacobs (2015:2) a major limitation of the theory reflected in literature is that not always would corruption manifest in a styled game. In other jurisdictions, the commission of a corrupt offence may just occur between two people in a more secretive manner. Therefore, the researcher argues that the theory’s over emphasis on intermediaries has received a backlash from other academics. The game theory may seem to overlook the existence of other socio-economic and political contexts and place more emphasis on the briber, the bribee and the intermediaries (Jacobs, 2015).
3.2.3 Relevance of the game theory to the Zimbabwean context
The researcher argues that the game theory is relevant to the Zimbabwean context and that it can be successfully utilized. It can be argued that in most cases corruption activities in schools are caused by involvement of several perpetrators, who in other jurisdictions are a kind of a network (game). In terms of the use of intermediaries, it has been revealed in various sources that in some schools there was connivance among principals, teachers and some intermediaries from representatives of suppliers particularly on corruption involving procurement (Transparency International, 2015:6). Chirorodziva (2015:9) advances that ‘hardly a month goes by without hearing an accusation of syndicates in abuse of school resources or a case in the courts of a school head, school bursar/or school development association chairperson being charged for embezzling funds’.

Declaration

Dedication 
Acknowledgements 
Abstract 
Table of contents
List of appendices 
List of figures 
List of tables
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION AND ORIENTATION
1.1 INTRODUCTION 
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY/CONTEXTUALISATION 
1.2.1 Meaning of corruption
1.2.2 Corruption in the world: Global perspective
1.2.3 Corruption in Zimbabwe: Sectoral analysis
1.2.4 Corruption in the education sector
1.2.5 Measures to fight corruption
1.2.6 Reasons for addressing corruption in education
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT 
1.4 RESEARCH AIMS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.4.1 Research aim
1.4.2 Research questions
1.4.2.1 Main research question
1.4.2.2 Sub-research questions
1.5 MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY
1.6 CONTRIBUTION OF THE RESEARCH 
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
1.8 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
1.8.1 The literature study
1.8.2 The empirical investigation
1.8.3 Sampling, site selection and selection of participants
1.8.4 Data collection methods
1.8.4.1 Interviews
1.8.4.2 Focus group discussions
1.8.4.3 Document analysis
1.8.4.4 Observation
1.9 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 
1.10 ETHICAL STANDARDS OF RESEARCH
1.11 DEMARCATION [DELIMITATION] OF THE FIELD STUDY
1.12 CHAPTER DEMARCATION 
1.13 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
1.14 CONCEPT CLARIFICATION [DEFINITION OF TERMS/CONCEPTS]
1.14.1 Corruption
1.14.2 Impact
1.14.3 Experiences
1.14.4 Perpetuating
1.14.5 Academic achievement
1.14.6 Disparities
1.14.7 Corporate governance
1.14.8 Strategies
1.14.9 Anti-Corruption
1.15 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 CONCEPTUALIZING CORRUPTION
2.3 MAJOR FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PREVALENCE OF CORRUPTION
2.3.1 Factors that influence corruption in the education sector
2.3.1.1 Nature of common corrupt practices in the education sector
2.4 UNDERSTANDING CORRUPTION IN OTHER COUNTRIES 
2.4.1 The United States of America (USA) case
2.4.2 The Zimbabwean case
2.4.3 The Chinese and Indonesian cases
2.4.4 The Indian case
2.4.5 The Cameroon, Ghana and Kenya cases
2.4.6 The Ukraine and Eastern Europe cases
2.4.7 Lessons learnt from these case studies
2.5 CORRUPTION IN OTHER COUNTRIES: TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
2.5.1 Top-ten ranked corruption-free countries
2.5.2 Strategies for combating corruption in the top-ten ranked countries
2.5.3 Middle- ten ranked countries
2.5.4 Strategies for combating corruption in the middle-ten ranked countries
2.5.5 Bottom-ten ranked countries
2.5.6 Strategies for combating corruption in the bottom-ten ranked countries
2.6 GLOBAL SUCCESSFUL PRACTICES IN COMBATING CORRUPTION 
2.6.1 Student admissions and financial management
2.6.2 Strengthening transparency and accountability
2.6.3 Increased information transparency
2.6.4 Parental involvement in public school management
2.6.5 Overall critique /analysis of Corruption Perception Index(CPI) rankings
2.7 NATURE OF CORRUPTIVE POLICIES AND PRACTICES 
2.7.1 Defining corruptive policies
2.7.2 Characteristics of corruptive policies
2.7.3 Corrupt practices in procurement
2.7.4 Corrupt practices in financial transactions
2.7.5 Corrupt practices in governance
2.7.6 Corrupt practices in information management
2.7.7 Effects of corruptive policies and practices
2.8 CONCEPTUALISING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
2.8.1 Academic achievement: Theoretical explanation
2.8.2 Corruption and academic achievement in schools
2.8.3 Corruption, academic achievement and United Nations policies
2.9 OTHER FACTORS THAT IMPACT ON LEARNERS’ EDUCATION
2.10 THE GOALS AND AIMS OF COMBATING CORRUPTION 
2.11 COMBATING CORRUPTION IN PRACTICE
2.11.1 The Bangladesh case
2.11.2 The Hong Kong case
2.11.3 The Botswana case
2.11.4 The Poland case
2.11.5 The South Korean case
2.11.6 Lessons learnt from these case studies
2.12 THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CONTEXT OF COMBATING CORRUPTION
2.12.1 Combating corruption in regions of inter-ethnicity
2.12.2 Combating corruption in regions of experienced tranquillity
2.12.3 Lessons learnt from the case studies
2.13 IMPLEMENTATION OF CORRUPTION PREVENTION PROGRAMMES 
2.13.1 Role of schools in combating corruption
2.13.2 The Tanzania case
2.13.3 The Cameroon case
2.14 ROLE OF PARENTS IN COMBATING CORRUPTION
2.14.1 Measures to fight corruption
2.14.2 Mainstreaming anti-corruption studies and programmes
2.14.3 Engaging with civil society organizations (CSO’s)
2.14.4 Improving accountability by strengthening transparency
2.14.5 Investigations and prosecution of perpetrators
2.14.6 Assets recovery and life audits
2.14.7 Upholding values through enforcement of a defined code of conduct
2.14.8 The use of a multi-stakeholder /multi-agency approach
2.14.9 Conducting periodic and regular systems audits and reviews
2.15 PROTOCOLS AND CONVENTIONS AS MEASURES/MECHANISMS
2.16 CRITIQUE/ANALYSIS: MEASURES FOR COMBATING CORRUPTION
2.17 CONCLUSION OF LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER 3 : THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON CORRUPTION PREVALENCE AND PREVENTION
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 THE GAME THEORY 
3.2.1 Key principles of the game theory
3.2.2 Critique of the game theory
3.2.3 Relevance of the game theory to the Zimbabwean context
3.2.4 Utilization of the game theory in analyzing data/findings
3.3 THE STRAIN THEORY
3.3.1 Key principles of the strain theory
3.3.2 Critique of the strain theory
3.3.3 Relevance of the strain theory to the Zimbabwean context
3.3.4 Utilization of the strain theory in analysing data/findings
3.4 THE SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM THEORY
3.4.1 Key principles of the symbolic interactionism theory
3.4.2 Critique of the symbolic interactionism theory
3.4.3 Relevance to the Zimbabwean context
3.4.4 Utilization of the symbolic interactionism theory in analysing
data/findings
3.5 THE PRINCIPAL-AGENT THEORY
3.5.1 Key principles of the principal-agent theory
3.5.2 Critique of the principal-agent theory
3.5.3 Relevance of the principal-agent to the Zimbabwean context
3.5.4 Utilization of the principal-agent theory in analysing data/findings
3.6 THE DEVELOPMENT THEORY
3.6.1 Key principles of the development theory
3.6.2 Critique of the development theory
3.6.3 Relevance of the development theory to the Zimbabwean context
3.6.4 Utilization of the development theory in analysing data/findings
3.7 THE SOUTH KOREAN ‘SPOON’ THEORY
3.7.1 Key principles of the ‘spoon’ theory
3.7.2 Critique of the ‘spoon’ theory
3.7.3 Relevance of the ‘spoon’ theory to Zimbabwean context
3.7.4 Utilization of the ‘spoon’ theory in analysing data/findings
3.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 
4.2.1 The case study
4.3 RESEARCH PARADIGMS 
4.3.1 Understanding the interpretive and positivist paradigms
4.3.2 The interpretive paradigm: Role and utilisation/ application in this study
4.3.3 Benefits of using the interpretive paradigm
4.3.4 Limitations associated with using the interpretive paradigm
4.3.5 Interpretive paradigm assumptions
4.3.5.1 Epistemology
4.3.5.2 Ontology
4.3.5.3 Axiology
4.4 RESEARCH METHODS: QUALITATIVE 
4.5 POPULATION, SAMPLE AND PARTICIPANT SELECTION
4.5.1 Population
4.5.2 Sample
4.5.3 Participant selection
4.6 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES 
4.7 SOURCES OF DATA
4.7.1 Primary sources of data
4.7.2 Secondary sources of data
4.8 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
4.8.1 The interview
4.8.2 Motivation for using semi-structured interviews
4.8.3 Interviews protocol with principals
4.8.4 Interviews protocol with senior teachers
4.8.5 Group interviews protocol with parents
4.8.6 Interview protocol with curriculum advisors
4.9 FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION PROTOCOL WITH LEARNERS
4.10 DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS GUIDE
4.10.1 Procedure for obtaining the documents
4.11 OBSERVATION
4.11.1 Nature of observation conducted
4.12 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE 
4.12.1 The process of data collection
4.13 DATA ANALYSIS 
4.14 ISSUES OF DEPENDABILITY AND TRUSTWORTHINESS
4.14.1 Dependability and member checking
4.14.2 Trustworthiness of data
4.15 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
4.16 CHAPTER SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 5 : DATA PRESENTATION , ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF PARTICIPANTS
5.3 PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
5.4 THE ROLE OF CURRICULUM POLICY MAKERS IN COMBATING CORRUPTION
5.5 THE CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS IN COMBATING CORRUPTION
5.6 STRATEGIES FOR COMBATING CORRUPTION IN ZIMBABWEAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
5.7 PARTICIPANTS’ VIEWS ON PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES FOR COMBATING CORRUPTION
5.8 THE THEMES FOR PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION CURRICULUM
5.9 DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
5.10 THE CONTENT OF THE SCHOOLS’ VISION AND MISSION STATEMENTS
5.11 THE ZIMBABWEAN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL
EDUCATION CURRICULA.
5.12 DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS OF THE AUDITOR-GENERAL’S REPORT
5.13 SUMMARY OF DATA ANALYSIS ON THE GROUNDS OF THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
5.14 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6 : PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
6.1 INTRODUCTION 
6.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM SEMI-STRUCTURED AND FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS
6.3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM THE DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS
6.4 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS RELATING TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS
6.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 INTRODUCTION 
7.2 CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY 
7.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
7.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 
7.5 FINAL REFLECTIONS 
References 

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