# Steel sheet in bending and shear tests under cyclic loading

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## Materials and Behavior Models

A metal bar is subjected to a uniform uniaxial tension, the load gradually increases. Depending on the materials, there are various behavior models to represent the experimental curve. Material has an elastoplastic behavior if we can represent the experimental stress strain curve by a first segment that is straight line and then by a curve possibly rectilinear in Figure 2.3. If a discharge is performed in a point, the discharge is carried out by the initial Young’s modulus.
There is hardening of the material, that means, variation in its yield with its plastic deformation. As the applied stress is less than the elastic limit σe, the behavior is elastic. When the applied stress reaches the yield stress and the loading is continued to increase, the plastic deformation and the elastic limit increase. When the plastic strain increases, the elastic range is enlarged, the length of the slope segment E increases. But more the yield increases more the material becomes brittle because the increase in the field of elasticity decreases the field of plasticity and increases sensitivity to stress concentrations due to small manufacture defects, the cavities caused by small one-off shocks. In the case of uniaxial tension, we can directly compare the applied stress on the elastic limit as the stress field has a nonzero component in the loading direction. Material has a perfect elastoplastic behavior if the experimental stress-strain curve can be represented by a first straight segment whose slope is the modulus of elasticity, and a horizontal segment. As the applied stress is less than the elastic limit σe, the behavior is elastic. When the applied stress reaches the elastic limit and the loading continues to increase. The total deformation increases but not the stress; there is no hardening
of the material in Figure 2.4. When the plastic strain is increased, the elastic field cannot grow; the length of the slope segment E is constant. If a discharge is performed in a point, it is carried out with the initial Young’s modulus. This model of perfectly elastoplastic behavior is adapted in the stretching bearing area for materials such as mild steel.

### Control of Plasticity

Assuming that a point in stress space represents the stress state in a material point of the structure. It is within the volume delimited by the surface plasticity. The material has an elastoplastic behavior, the viscosity is not taken into account. Three cases can occur during a load increment in Figure 2.5a.
• The point representing the new state of stress is in the volume defined by the surface plasticity.
• The point representing the new stress state is on the surface of plasticity.
• The point representing the new stress state is outside the volume limited by the surface of plasticity.
In the first case, the behavior was elastic and it still is. For the second, the behavior was elastic and he became plastic. For the third, the behavior was elastic and became inadmissible. The plasticity surface must evolve so that the new point is on a new surface: this is the work hardening of the material. Assume now a point of the stress space representing the stress state in a material point of the structure. It is on the surface in Figure 2.5b.
• The point representing the new stress state came back to the volume delimited by the surface plasticity.
• The point representing the new stress state remains on the plasticity surface.
• The point representing the new stress is outside the volume delimited by the surface plasticity.
For the first case, we have an elastic discharge. For the second, loading is neutral. For the third, the behavior was plastic and it became inadmissible. The plasticity surface must evolve so that the new point is on a new surface: this is the work hardening of the material. Three types of data are needed to treat elastoplasticity:
• The plasticity criterion.
• The flow rule.
• The hardening rule.
The plasticity criterion allows determining the value of the equivalent stress from the components of the stress tensor. If the elastic limit is exceeded by the value of the equivalent stress, the stress state is inadmissible. Plasticity came up or it has developed. A criterion allows determining when the plasticity appears but provides no information about the nature of the plastic behavior. To describe the plasticity surface and its evolution when there is hardening, it is necessary to know the flow law which expresses the relation between increased plastic deformation and increased stress. In the case of plasticity associated, hypothesis of the elastoplasticity theory generally well suited to represent the behavior of metals, the function F, which describes the equation of the plasticity surface, is also called the plastic potential, plastic potential and plasticity surface being identical. The flow law is the relationship between the strain increment and increased stress. The hardening law gives the variation of plasticity with the stress state.

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The Criterion of Plasticity

Various tests with different stress states are performed and it is determined for each of them when the plasticity appears, which is arranged after a test of points cloud in the plane of the two principal stresses (σI , σII ). We can then look for what is the equation of the curve that goes best with this scatter plot, or the equation of the surface in the stress space. This equation can always be put in the form, σ representing the principal constraints or constraints [3] as follows:
f (σ ) = σy orf (σ , σy) = 1 (2.11).
The function f defines the equivalent stress which is nothing other than a scalar obtained by more or less complicated mixing of components of the stress tensor, scalar, which has the advantage of being easily compared to the elastic limit. Mixing rule is called plasticity criterion. For a given material, a criterion passes better through the experimental points than others, but there is not a criterion better than another, suitable for all materials. It was only after development of material and mechanical tests that we are able to say which plasticity criterion is the most appropriate for this material. In the case of a uniform tension, which is the simplest mechanical test to perform and therefore the most common, the equivalent stress must be equal to the tensile stress applied to the specimen. σy is the yield strength of the material. The curve or surface equation is called plasticity surface.

#### Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics

In this section we present the main ingredients for the formulation of a coupled damage-plasticity model in the framework of the thermodynamics of continuum media. In order to describe evolution of elastic properties due to damage and hardening of the material due to plasticity, we consider five different internal variables, namely: ε d is the plastic strain, ξ p a scalar that controls the isotropic hardening, κ p, a deviatoric second order tensor controlling the kinematic hardening, damage compliance tensor D and ξ d , which is a scalar hardening like variable related to damage. In order to derive governing equations of the model, we consider the following main three groups of ingredients:
• additive decomposition of strain into elastic, damage and plastic strains: ε = ε e + ε p + ε d (3.1). where ε p corresponds to the unrecoverable strain at zero stress, ε e corresponds to the recoverable part of strains when unloading with the initial elastic modulus. Finally, ε d corresponds to the additional recoverable part of strains due to the evoloution of the elastic modulus during damage. A schematic representation is given in Figure 3.1 for a 1D model.

Plasticity model: yield criterion and consistency condition

The plastic internal variables evolution equations are obtained considering the plastic part of the total dissipation and introducing the plastic Lagrangian and associated plastic Lagrange multiplier γ˙p. The maximization problem is then recast as a minimization problem as: max min L p(σ ∗, qp∗, α ∗, γ˙p) (3.11) γ˙p >0 (σ ∗,qp∗,α ∗).

FOREWORD
LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY
ÖZET
RESUME
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Problem Statement
1.2 Background and Literature Review
1.3 Scope and Objectives
1.4 Outline
2. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
2.1 Observations Elastic Limit
2.2 Materials and Behavior Models
2.3 Control of Plasticity
2.4 The Criterion of Plasticity
3. COUPLED DAMAGE-PLASTICITY MODEL : THEORY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics
3.2.1 Equations of states
3.2.2 Dissipation potential
3.2.2.1 Plasticity model: yield criterion and consistency condition .
3.2.2.2 Damage model: damage criterion and consistency condition
3.2.2.3 Coupling model: elasto-plastic-damage tangent modulus
3.2.3 Hardening models
3.2.4 Flow rule
3.3 Conclusion
4. COUPLED DAMAGE-PLASTICITY MODEL : NUMERICAL ASPECTS
4.1 Integration Algorithm
4.2 Tangent Matrice, Numerical Integration
4.3 Numerical Implementation and Operator Split Method for Coupled
Damage-Plasticity Model
4.3.1 Discretization of the problem
4.3.2 Global computation
4.3.3 Element computation
4.3.4 Local computation and implicit backward Euler scheme
4.3.4.1 Plasticity computation
4.3.4.2 Damage computation
4.4 Numerical Examples
4.4.1 Steel sheet in simple tension test under cycling loading
4.4.2 Steel sheet in bending and shear tests under cyclic loading
4.4.2.1 Bending test
4.4.2.2 Shear test
5. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

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