STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT FOR GOVERNANCE AND SUSTAINABILITY

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PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AS A STRATEGIC DOCUMENT

The North-West Provincial Government, through its planning commission, has developed a Provincial Development Plan (PDP) in line with the core values of the National Development Plan. The Provincial Development Plan is a blueprint of governance initiatives and sustainability (developmental) programmes in the Province. Through the PDP, it is argued by the Provincial Government that the primary focus is to craft a better tomorrow for the people and the Province. In line with the provincial theme ‘OUR PROVINCE, OUR HERITAGE, MAKE IT WORK- DIRANG BOKAMOSO’ – let’s get down to work and ensure that the legacy of underdevelopment, poverty and inequality is fully addressed in the North-West (North-West PDP, 2013). It can be observed that the North-West Provincial Development Plan is predominantly based on the National Development Plan (NDP) in an attempt to align with the objectives and priorities it identifies, as well as with the vision for 2030 of a united South Africa.
Additional influences that shaped the North-West Provincial 54 Development Plan (PDP), in its application of the objectives of the National Development Plan (NDP) on a provincial level, are as follows: The North-West provincial development perspective – the trends, needs and challenges in terms of the current spatial, demographic and economic situation The institutional/policy environment – national and provincial policies, strategies, plans and frameworks as well as the municipal development priorities as captured in Integrated Development Plans (IDP’s), Local Economic Development Strategies (LED’s) and Spatial Development Frameworks (SDF’s) of each demarcation The strategic development approach and principles for development strategies – case studies and best practice examples (predominantly the United Nations, World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development).

Economy and employment as a key priority

Popular economic belief includes that people participate in every process that gradually benefits them and serves as a resort of pleasure. At most, citizenry participation occurs where there are perceived reimbursements. According to the PDP document, the provincial economy needs to become more productive, more competitive and more diversified. A crucial factor to the economy and employment, as envisaged through the North-West PDP, is that skills development and training in practices in high demand from industry is an important element of allowing employment oriented economic growth (North-West PDP, 2013). Continued learning, research and development and technological innovation, are factors to increase levels of production and competitiveness, and are regarded as being equally important. Creating an enabling environment in terms of physical and institutional factors is critical to attract and retain investment in the Province and to allow for efficiency in the economy. In order to achieve employment and economic growth, it is necessary to prioritise certain economic sectors that lead the overall economy in building on its competitive advantages and diversifying its structure. The two economic sectors in the North-West with a comparative advantage (in relation to the rest of South-Africa) include the agriculture and the mining sectors. The majority of citizens rely on the agricultural and mining sectors as means of economic development and production.

Environmental sustainability and social patterns

The prime focus of the PDP is to address the apartheid geography and to create the conditions for more humane and environmentally sustainable living and working environments for the people of the North-West Province. It is important to address the entrenched spatial patterns that exacerbate social inequality and economic inefficiency, cognisant of the unique needs and potentials of different rural and urban areas in line with emerging development corridors. Significantly, the PDP is aimed at ensuring that the delivery of housing contributes to the restructuring of towns and cities and strengthens the livelihood prospects of households. Active citizenship in spatial development should be supported through properly funded interventions that encompass citizen-led neighbourhood vision and planning processes, and the introduction of social compacts. Similar to the economic growth and benefits, environmental sustainability is imperative in addressing the needs and expectations of citizens through social change and welfare mechanisms – strategic programmes, as well as both governance and sustainability, are of significance in improving dialogue among key stakeholders such the North-West Provincial Government and its citizens.

Agriculture, Culture and Tourism (ACT)

During his State of the Province Address in June 2014, Honourable Premier Mahumapelo announced that the 5th Provincial Administration has identified certain priorities that intend to revitalise and propel the economy of the North-West Province to new heights. The Premier announced that the Province has identified Agriculture, Culture and Tourism (ACT) for this purpose. The ACT concrete has been identified as the anchor of economic growth, especially in the rural areas where poverty, unemployment and inequality are at its highest. All the other sectors of the economy, such as mining, manufacturing and retail serve as tributaries (see, NW-SOPA, 2014).

Programmes of the VTSD

The VTSD policy is said to be implemented through two programmes. The first programme, following the 2015 State of the Province Address (SOPA) pronouncements by the Premier, argues that the Provincial Government has made a commitment to bias procurement of public goods and services to the VTSD areas as part of the strategy to contribute to the realisation of the NDP goals and objectives. On the second programme, as part of growing and developing the VTSD, a commitment has been made to ensure that in the 2016-2017 fiscal year all the VTSD areas have development plans that will guide the governments’ action-oriented interventions going forward (NW-SOPA, 2015). Contextually, the VTSD plans are said to focus on supporting the existing cooperatives and SMME’s in the villages; to focus on skills development that promotes Youth Entrepreneurship; to focus on agro-processing, and so forth.

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR THE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

In qualitative research, at times, there is a fundamental challenge of relating to and understanding the role and importance of theory in research, from the researcher’s view-point. As a consequence, the concept of theory necessitates some clarification to broaden and enhance one’s understanding. In this regard, Verma and Malick CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 196 (1999:6), as well as Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler (2011:36) are of the opinion that the main role of theory is to help to guide the researcher. In the social sciences, it usually implies a set of statements describing and explaining the relationship between human behaviour and the factors that affect or explain it. In the view of Best and Khan (2006:10), a theory could best be described as an attempt to develop a general explanation for some phenomenon. More specifically, a theory, according to these authors, defines non-observable constructs that are inferred from observable facts and events, and are thought to have an effect on the phenomenon under study. From this perspective, one could simply come to the conclusion that a theory is primarily concerned with providing clarification; and that it therefore focuses on determining cause-and-effect relationships. It further implies that a theory describes the relationship among key variables for explaining a current state or predicting future concurrences.
A theory is thus an essential tool of research for stimulating the advancement of knowledge (Inglis & Maclean, 2005:17; Kawulich, 2009:37). Theory should, consequently, drive the research process and should provide a framework for action and for understanding. The view of authors and researchers on the topic can provide the impetus, and endorse the view and rationale for a discussion of the research design and methodology in this Chapter. Apart from a proper understanding of the concept of theory, the researcher also requires an understanding and knowledge of the related research philosophies that underpin the different principles of the research. In this study, the research philosophy that underpins the study is reflected in principles of a research paradigm suitable for the study.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • DECLARATION
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • DEDICATION
  • ABSTRACT
  • CHAPTER ONE: ORIENTATION, PROBLEM STATEMENT, AND IMPORTANCE
    • OF THE STUDY
    • 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE SUDY
    • 1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    • 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
    • 1.4 AIM OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
    • 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    • 1.6 LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 1.6.1 Theoretical underpinnings and perspectives
    • 1.7 INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY ENGAGEMENT
    • 1.8 A PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY ENGAGEMENT
      • 1.8.1 The development context
      • 1.8.2 The participative context
    • 1.9 STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT
    • 1.10 SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMMES
      • 1.10.1 Stakeholder engagement
      • 1.10.2 Citizen engagement
    • 1.11 GOVERNANCE
      • 1.11.1 Government
      • 1.11.2 Corporate governance
    • 1.12 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      • 1.12.1 Research design
      • 1.12.2 Data collection
      • 1.12.3 Data analysis
    • 1.13 ETHICAL ISSUES CONCERNING RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS
    • 1.14 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
      • 1.14.1 Contribution to academic and scientific knowledge
      • 1.14.2 Revolutionising strategic communication management in practice and/or corporate worldview
    • 1.15 STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY
    • 1.16 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER TWO: CONTEXTUALISATION AND BACKGROUND OF THE NORTHWEST PROVINCE AND ITS PROGRAMMES
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 BACKGROUND AND FORMATION OF THE NORTH-WEST PROVINCE
      • 2.2.1 Mahikeng as the capital of the North-West Province
    • 2.3 PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AS A STRATEGIC DOCUMENT
      • 2.3.1 Economy and employment as a key priority
      • 2.3.2 Environmental sustainability and social patterns
    • 2.4 FIVE CONCRETES OF THE PROVINCE (PROGRAMMES)
      • 2.4.1 Agriculture, Culture and Tourism (ACT)
      • 2.4.2 Villages, Townships and Small Dorpies (VTSD)
      • 2.4.3 Reconciliation, Healing and Renewal (RHR)
      • 2.4.4 Setsokotsane
      • 2.4.5 Saamtrek-Saamwerk philosophy
    • 2.5 POSSIBLE GAP ANALYSIS OF THE FIVE CONCRETES
    • 2.6 COMMUNICATION OF THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
    • 2.7 STAKEHOLDERS IN THE NORTH-WEST PROVINCE
    • 2.8 UNDERSTANDING CITIZENS THROUGH COMMUNICATION
    • 2.9 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 3: PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE FOR INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY ENGAGEMENT
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 3.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND PERSPECTIVES
      • 3.2.1 Society and citizenship in context – Social theory (grand theory)
      • 3.2.2 Legitimacy theory (grand theory)
      • 3.2.3 Worldview: Dialogic approach
      • 3.2.4 Grand domain: Communication Science
      • 3.2.5 Theoretical approaches to communication management
      • 3.2.6 Theoretical approaches to development communication
      • 3.2.7 Theoretical approaches to political science discourse
    • 3.3 DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE
      • 3.3.1 Communication for development in government
      • 3.3.2 Communication about development in government
    • 3.4 PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY
    • 3.5 PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN SOUTH AFRICA
      • 3.5.1 Public participation and communication
      • 3.5.2 Limitations and challenges to public participation
    • 3.6 PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
    • 3.7 PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION AND THE STRATEGIC CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
      • 3.7.1 Government for the people by the people
      • 3.7.2 Public participation in a strategic context
      • 3.7.3 Citizenship as a participative action mechanism
    • 3.8 STAKEHOLDER APPROACH TO INCLUSIVE ENGAGEMENT
    • 3.9 A CORNER-STONE TO PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION – INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY ENGAGEMENT
    • 3.10 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 4: STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT FOR GOVERNANCE AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 GOVERNANCE AND POLITICS IN AFRICA
      • 4.2.1 Historical perspectives on governance in Africa
      • 4.2.2 Governance in the South African context
    • 4.3 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION
    • 4.3.1 Momentum of the concept
    • 4.4 STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION AND THE PUBLIC SPHERE
      • 4.4.1 Public versus Private
    • 4.5 CONNECTING COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT TO GOVERNANCE
    • 4.6 STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION IN GOVERNANCE
    • 4.7 STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT
      • 4.7.1 Segmentation in strategic communication practice
      • 4.7.2 The atmosphere of strategic communication
    • 4.8 GOVERNANCE: A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL
    • 4.9 TRIPPLE-CONTEXT DIMENSIONS TOWARDS RESPONSIVENESS
    • 4.10 INCLUSIVE VALUE CREATION THROUGH COMMUNICATION
    • 4.11 TOWARDS AN INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY APPROACH
    • 4.12 PRESENTATION OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    • 4.13 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
    • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 5.2 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
      • 5.2.1 Research paradigm
    • 5.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • 5.4 RESEARCH APPROACH
      • 5.4.1 Exploratory
      • 5.4.2 Qualitative research
      • 5.4.3 Characteristics of qualitative research
      • 5.4.4 Advantages of qualitative research
    • 5.5 RESEARCH DESIGN
    • 5.5.1 Population of the study
    • 5.5.2 Sampling size and sampling procedure
    • 5.6 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
      • 5.6.1 Instruments for data collection
      • 5.6.2 Semi-structured interview schedule for the study
      • 5.6.3 Focus group discussions in the study
      • 5.6.4 Participant observation in the study
      • 5.6.5 Recording, field-notes & transcribing of data
    • 5.7 PILOT STUDY
    • 5.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
    • 5.8.1 Qualitative thematic (network) analysis
    • 5.8.2 Coding of data
    • 5.8.3 Building thematic networks
    • 5.9 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
    • 5.10 DELIMITATIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY
    • 5.11 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • 5.12 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER SIX: DATA MANAGEMENT, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS
    • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 6.2 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
    • 6.2.1 Qualitative data analysis
    • 6.3 MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS PROCESS
      • 6.3.1 Field notes and participant observation
      • 6.3.2 Using Nvivo in data analysis
      • 6.3.3 Thematic analysis
      • 6.3.4 Emerging themes: accuracies, simplifications and concentration
    • 6.4 PRESENTATION OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS
      • 6.4.1 Research results – focus group discussions
      • 6.4.2 Presentation of research results from individual interviews
    • 6.5 SYSNTHESIS OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS
    • 6.6 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: A STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION FRAMEWORK FOR INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY ENGAGEMENT
    • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 7.2 INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY ENGAGEMENT
    • 7.3 REVIEW OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    • 7.3.1 Primary research question
    • 7.3.2 Secondary research questions
    • 7.4 GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION
    • 7.5 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR PUBLIC REPRESENTATIVES
    • 7.6 PROPOSED STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION FRAMEWORK
    • 7.7 REVIEW OF THE PROBLEM TATEMENT
    • 7.8 RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY
    • 7.9 PROPOSAL FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    • 7.10 CONCLUSION
  • LIST OF REFERENCES
    • APPENDIX

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STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT FOR GOVERNANCE AND SUSTAINABILITY: A PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE FOR INCLUSIVE CITIZENRY ENGAGEMENT

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