Students’ Perception of Quality of Teaching and Learning in HE

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Students’ Perceptions of the Significance of Peace Studies

Kester (2013) outlines the bodies and key HE institutions that have contributed to peace studies globally as the University for Peace, University of Bradford; George Mason University’s Institute for Conflict Analysis, Teachers College Columbia University’s Peace Education Programme, United Nations University Institutes, or UNESCO-affiliated projects. The author further carried out a qualitative impact assessment of the peace studies programmes at UNESCO’s Asia- Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) in Seoul, South Korea, which offers substantial training programmes in peace studies and the University for Peace, a United Nations-mandated higher education institution in San Jose, Costa Rica, which trains peace educators in the philosophy and methodology of peace education. Concerning, APCEIU, South Korea, Kester has reported a multiplier effect of the peace studies programmes on the educators, who were involved in the study. Particularly, there was deep satisfaction with the programme. The participants noted the impact of the programme on such areas as their personal and professional growth; transfer of learning; curriculum development; and planned future engagements with research in peace education.

Pedagogical Paradigms for Delivering Peace Education

In another study Jenkins (2013) has analysed the proceedings of a Global Stakeholder Design Summit, which brought together key stakeholders in peace education, including academics, researchers, leaders and other educators to discuss the design and development of a framework for a comprehensive peace education at the National Peace Academy (NPA), USA. In the analytical discussion of the summit’s proceedings, Jenkins has used the ‘transformative imperative’ perspective as discussed in Reardon (1988). To Jenkins, the establishment of the NPA as a learning institution was founded on a contemporary understanding of Reardon’s insights both in terms of curriculum development and pedagogical orientation. The author highlights five building blocks of a strong peace studies programme from an assessment of Reardon, which are compatible with the ideals of humanistic and social reconstruction curriculum. These are establishment of solid but flexible moral fundamentals to guide content selection, teaching methodology and curriculum innovations; the open selection of social objectives, as per the moral fundamentals to steer teaching and learning with transparent social goals; a transformative peace learning methodology with focus on generating knowledge which may empower the leaner towards social reconstruction; curriculum delivery through holistic approaches in presentation of content but with bias towards social reconstruction and formation of desired human relationships; and lastly, the outcomes of the transformative paradigm as a result of efforts to capacitate learners to pursue social transformation be they socioeconomic, political, personal, or environmental.

Security Studies

The increased demand for security officers globally, particularly by the private security industry has increased the demand for HE in security studies (Adolf, 2010; Ray and Hertig, 2008). In the US, for instance, private security officers outnumber the public law enforcement officers in the ratio of three to one and comprise about 66% of the total number of security officers in the country, apart from the military (Adolf, 2010; Cunningham, Strauchs & Van Meter, 1990; Ray & Hertig, 2008). These officers serve in diverse positions within the security industry including security managers, physical security specialists, information security technicians, chief security officers, personnel security specialists, and private investigators. Yet many continue to regard security officers as non-professionals (Adolf, 2010). Consequently, meticulous education aimed at meeting the demands of this diversified personnel is still underdeveloped in most parts of the world, including US (Adolf, 2010; Manzo, 2006).

Security Studies

The increased demand for security officers globally, particularly by the private security industry has increased the demand for HE in security studies (Adolf, 2010; Ray and Hertig, 2008). In the US, for instance, private security officers outnumber the public law enforcement officers in the ratio of three to one and comprise about 66% of the total number of security officers in the country, apart from the military (Adolf, 2010; Cunningham, Strauchs & Van Meter, 1990; Ray & Hertig, 2008). These officers serve in diverse positions within the security industry including security managers, physical security specialists, information security technicians, chief security officers, personnel security specialists, and private investigators. Yet many continue to regard security officers as non-professionals (Adolf, 2010). Consequently, meticulous education aimed at meeting the demands of this diversified personnel is still underdeveloped in most parts of the world, including US (Adolf, 2010; Manzo, 2006).

Quality of Teaching and Learning

Quality in relation to education is a multifaceted concept and has been defined variedly by different scholars (UNICEF, 2000), with the terms efficiency, effectiveness, equity and quality being used interchangeably (Adams, 1993). However, from the ideas of Bernard (1999), it is generally understood that in all aspects of the school and its environment, the rights of all children to survival, protection, development and participation are at the centre; hence, the focus should be on learning which strengthens the capacities of students to act progressively on their own behalf through the acquisition of desirable knowledge, skills and attitudes which create for students, and help them create for themselves and others, places of safety, security and healthy interaction. Based on this principle, UNICEF (2000) has defined quality education to include healthy learners; safe learning environments, gender-sensitive curriculum approaches, adequate resource and facilities; relevant curriculum content; child centred teaching approaches, skilful assessment procedures; and outcomes that embrace knowledge, skills and attitudes, and are linked to national goals of education and positive participation in society.

TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • DECLARATION
  • DEDICATION
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • LIST OF TABLES
  • LIST OF FIGURES
  • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
  • ABSTRACT
  • CHAPTER ON ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
    • 1.1 Background to the Study
    • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
    • 1.3 Research Questions:
      • 1.3.1 Main Question:
      • 1.3.2 Sub Questions:
    • 1.4 Aim of the Study
    • 1.6 Rationale, Significance and Motivation for the Research
    • 1.7 Research Methods
      • 1.7.3 Participating HE Institutions
    • 1.8 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study
    • 1.9 Chapter Division
    • 1.10 Definitions of Operational Concepts
    • 1.11 Chapter Summary
  • CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
    • 2.0 Introduction
    • 2.1 Human Security Conceptualization
    • 2.2 Critical Social Theory
    • 2.3 The Humanistic and Social Reconstructionist Conceptions of Curriculum
    • 2.4. Service Quality
      • 2.4.1 Importance of Perceptions in Service Quality
      • 2.4.2: Service Quality in Higher Education
    • 2.5: The Conceptual Framework of the Study
    • 2.5 Chapter Summary
  • CHAPTER THREE LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 3.0 Introduction
      • 3.1.0 HE in Peace and Security Studies
      • 3.1.1 Broad-field Dimension
      • 3.1.2 Peace Studies
      • 3.1.2.1 Students’ Perceptions of the Significance of Peace Studies
      • 3.1.2.2 Pedagogical Paradigms for Delivering Peace Education
      • 3.1.2.3 Pedagogical Models for Peace Studies
      • 3.1.3 Security Studies
      • 3.1.3.1 Quality Concerns in the Teaching and Learning of Security Studies
      • 3.1.3.2 Curriculum Design and Relevance of Programmes in Security Studies
      • 3.1.4 Regional Security Context of Higher Education in Peace and Security Studies
      • 3.1.5 Contemporary Security challenges in Kenya and Implications on Higher
    • Education
    • 3.2. Quality of Teaching and Learning
    • 3.3 Quality Issues in Higher Education in Kenya
    • 3.4 Students’ Perception of Quality of Teaching and Learning in HE
    • 3.5 Chapter Summary
  • CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
    • 4.1.0 Research Design
    • 4.2 The Study Locale
    • 4.3 Target Population
    • 4.4 Sample and Sampling Procedures
      • 4.4.1 Research Sites
      • 4.4.2 Informants
      • 4.5 Research Instruments
      • 4.5.1 Questionnaire: The SERVPERF Instrument
      • 4.5.2 Interview Schedule
      • 4.5.2.1 In-depth Interviews
      • 4.5.2.2 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs)
    • 4.6 Pilot Study
      • 4.7.0 Reliability and Validity
      • 4.7.1 Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaire
      • 4.7.2 Validity and Reliability of Qualitative Data
    • 4.8 Data Collection and Ethical Considerations
    • 4.9 Data Analysis and Presentation
    • 4.10 Chapter Summary
  • CHAPTER FIVE
    • 5.0 Introduction
    • 5.1 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
    • 5.2 Students’ perceptions of the Quality of Teaching and Learning Facilities in the Peace and Security Studies in Kenyan Universities
    • 5.3 Students Perception of the Quality of Lecturers in Peace and Security Studies in Kenyan Universities
    • 5.4 Students Perception of the Quality of Teaching and Learning Methods in Peace and Security Studies in Kenyan Universities
    • 5.5 Students’ perceptions of the Quality of Curriculum Evaluation Approaches in Peace and Security Studies in Kenyan Universities
    • 5.6 Students’ perceptions of the Relevance and Design of the Content of the Programmes in Peace and Security Studies in Kenyan Universities
    • 5.6 Significant Differences Between Students’ perceptions of the Quality of Teaching and Learning in the Peace and Security Studies Programmes and their Demographic Variables
    • 5.7 Chapter Summary

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HIGHER EDUCATION IN PEACE AND SECURITY STUDIES IN KENYAN UNIVERSITIES: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE QUALITY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

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