CHAPTER THREE: WELLNESS- RELATED DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTES
This chapter addresses part of the second literature research aim, namely, to conceptualise the constructs of wellness-related dispositional attributes (sense of coherence, emotional intelligence and burnout) and to examine the way these are conceptualised and explained by theoretical models in the literature. Finally, the implications of these wellness-related dispositional attributes for coping and wellness strategies in a call centre environment are assessed.
CONCEPTUALISATION OF WELLNESS-RELATED DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTES
This research focuses on the wellness of call centre agents. Wellness relates to the psychological wellbeing of individuals (Sieberhagen et al., 2011). Psychosocial flourishing is based on psychological and social wellbeing (Diener, Wirtz, Tov, Kim-Prieto, Choi, Oishi & Biswas-Diener, 2010). According to Diener et al. (2010), there are several psychological needs. These include the need for competence which relates to which individuals‘ have a need to feel confident, the need for relatedness is to foster wellbeing and a need to have human connections that are close and secure, whilst respecting autonomy and facilitating competence and lastly the need for self-acceptance where individuals have a positive self evaluation of oneself and one‘s life.
This research focuses on a set of constructs that have been related to the wellness (psychological wellbeing) of individuals. These include individuals‘ sense of coherence, emotional intelligence and burnout. Sense of coherence and emotional intelligence have a positive effect on individuals‘ psychological wellbeing (Harry, 2011; Latif, 2010), while burnout negatively influences their wellbeing, especially when individuals work under controlled and emotionally demanding conditions that lead to increased levels of burnout (De Lange et al., 2010; Jordan et al., 2010). According to Choi (2010), burnout is a specific kind of occupational stress that results from demanding relationships.
Conceptualisation of sense of coherence
The movement towards a positive psychological approach, away from the pathogenic paradigm, led to the development of the sense-of-coherence (SOC) construct by Antonovsky (1987). Antonovsky and Loye (2000) hold that humans are able to make sense of their reality despite the increased complexity that they experience. Antonovsky (1987) postulates that sense of coherence is the particular way in which individuals appraise or understand their environment and which allows them to make sense of complex environments (Torp, Hagen & Vinje, 2010). Sense of coherence is conceptualised as a psychological, global orientation that influences the way in which individuals understand their environments; it can therefore give rise to individual differences in behaviour (Torp et al., 2010). Sense of coherence is referred to as a psychological personality trait, where individuals view the world as coherent and predictable. It is derived from the extent to which a person experiences evenness of stimuli intensity, a firm heading towards personal objectives with both an underload and an overload of stress (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Cilliers, 2011; 1987; Sairenchi et al., 2011; Torp et al., 2010).
Antonovsky (1987) focused on the factors that could describe the ability to manage tension. These factors were described by the concept of generalised resistance resources (GRRs), defined as money, ego strength, cultural stability, social support and the like (any phenomenon that is effective in combating a wide variety of stressors). According to Reeves and Henning (2010), sense of coherence is viewed as a person‘s global orientation to life and has been shown to buffer the relationship between stressful work characteristics and mental health. Sense of coherence is also viewed as a global orientation to the extent where one has a pervasive, enduring and dynamic feeling of coherence (Koen et al., 2011).
Conceptualisation of emotional intelligence
Peter Salovey and John Mayer (1990) defined emotional intelligence as the form of intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one‘s own and others‘ thinking and emotions and to discriminate among them and use the information to guide thinking. It also entails having the ability to perceive the emotions to facilitate thoughts, understand the emotions and to regulate these emotions for personal growth. Emotional intelligence is concerned with understanding oneself and others, relating to people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings so as to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands (Gunavathy & Ayswarya, 2012; Van Zyl & De Bruin, 2012).
Emotional intelligence forms an integral part of positive psychology as it has a significant impact on human performance, happiness, wellbeing and the quest for meaning in life, all of which are the focus of interest in positive psychology (Devonish & Greenidge, 2010; Rangriz & Mehrabi, 2010; Shaemi et al., 2011; Van Zyl & De Bruin, 2012).
According to Shaemi et al. (2011), emotional intelligence is considered as individuals‘ evaluating ability, expressing and controlling their own affection and others to efficiently utilise it. If a job is more complex, the emotional skills let an individual think better under difficult conditions and prevent wasting time by means of feelings like anger, anxiety and fear. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence are able to compromise and solve problems successfully.
Conceptualisation of burnout
Burnout is a state of crisis in one‘s relationship with work and people at work. It consists of three dimensions, namely, exhaustion, which is emotional and physical overextension and the inability to recover fully; personal depersonalisation, in which an individual adopts a cold and distant attitude towards work and people at work; and reduced personal accomplishment, where work tasks feel overwhelming and what is actually being achieved seems insignificant (Hopkins & Gardner, 2012; Hultell & Gustavsson, 2011). Exhaustion and depersonalisation are considered the core of burnout. Recent studies suggest another dimension, referred to as a cognitive weariness, which focuses on the cognitive aspects such as concentration difficulties and impairment in thinking processes. Recent research revealed that the scope of burnout has widened and now focuses on positive job-related outcomes (Hultell & Gustavsson, 2011).
Burnout in this study is conceptualised as a psychological syndrome in response to chronic interpersonal stressors on the job (Yürür & Sarikaya, 2012). The two key dimensions of this syndrome are an overwhelming exhaustion and feelings of mental distance. Exhaustion is the central quality of burnout and the most obvious manifestation of this complex syndrome (Yürür & Sarikaya, 2012). Burnout refers to individuals who are emotionally exhausted as a result of depleted resources. The energy individuals once had has been depleted, leaving individuals without resources; such individuals feel they lack adaptive resources (Yürür & Sarikaya, 2012)
According to research by Yürür and Sarikaya (2012), social support from a supervisor has more impact on an employee‘s wellbeing than that from co-workers. In a work environment social support may reduce the likelihood of burnout. It may also have an overall beneficial effect which protects a person from adverse effects (Yürür & Sarikaya, 2012).
Table 3.1 In the definition of wellness in relation to the wellness-related dispositional constructs of sense of coherenc, emotional intelligence and burnout is summarised.
THEORETICAL MODELS OF WELLNESS-RELATED DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTES
Sense of coherence will be conceptualised in terms of the salutogenic theory (Antonovsky, 1987), while emotional intelligence will be conceptualised in terms of the Mayer and Salovey model (1997), Goleman‘s emotional intelligence competencies model (2001) and Bar-On‘s mixed model (2002). Burnout, on the other hand, will be conceptualised in terms of the conservation of resources model (Hobfall & Shirom, 1993), and job demands and resources model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001).
The components of sense of coherence
The components of sense of coherence, namely comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness will be discussed in this section. These components are important for this research as they add insight into an individual‘s coping.
Comprehensibility is a well-defined dimension in terms of which individuals perceive stimuli from the internal and external world as information that is ordered, consistent, structured and clear. Individuals view these stimuli as comprehensible and as events that makes sense on a cognitive level (Sairenchi et al., 2011). Comprehensibility is described as the extent to which one perceives confronted stimuli as making cognitive sense as information that is ordered, consistent, structured and clear, rather than as chaotic, disordered, random, accidental, or inexplicable ―noise‖ (Antonovsky, 1979; Sairenchi et al., 2011). A high sense of comprehensibility is when a person expects that the stimuli met in the future will be predictable, or that when they do come as surprises, they will be ordered and explicable (Sairenchi et al., 2011).
In terms of manageability, individuals feel that they are able to cope with difficult situations and display a strong sense of coherence. Individuals obtain the resources that are necessary and available to meet the demands posed by these stimuli. Such resources are generally under one‘s control or can be, for example, friends or one‘s spouse (Sairenchi et al., 2011). Manageability is described as the extent to which one perceives the resources adequate to meet the demands posed by the stimuli that bombard one. A high degree of manageability would mean that one will not feel victimised or that life is unfair, but rather feel able to cope without grieving endlessly (Sairenchi et al., 2011).
When demands are worthy of investment, this is referred to as meaningfulness; that is, when an individual is able to emotionally identify and commit effort in handling these demands (Sairenchi et al., 2011). Meaningfulness is described as the extent to which life makes sense and that at least some of the problems and demands posed by living are worth the investment of energy. A high degree of meaningfulness will make challenges welcome rather than a burden that one would very much prefer to be without. When unhappy experiences occur, one will be determined to seek meaning in them and do the best to overcome them (Sairenchi et al., 2011).
According to Sairenchi et al. (2011), research has shown that a strong sense of coherence is related to a lower rating of stress, less emotional distress and a lower level of anxiety. According to Cilliers (2011), research into positive psychology leadership reveals that most leaders have increased levels of comprehension and experience work as structured, predictable and explicable.
Theoretical foundations of sense of coherence
Integral to Antonovsky‘s (1987) theory is the generalised resistance resources (GRRs) and the stressors, which he termed the ―generalised resistance deficits‖.
(i) Generalised resistance resources
The generalised resistance resources determine the position a person occupies on the health ‗ease‒disease‘ continuum. GRRs are characteristics which help one to cope with, avoid or combat the stressors of human existence for instance to interpret the environmental stimuli one is bombarded with information (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010). The GRRs provide individuals with life experiences that are characterised by consistency, a balance of stimuli and participation in determining outcomes. They foster experiences which help one to make sense cognitively of the world (Antonovsky, 1979; Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010).
The regular experiencing of the availability and use of the GRRs facilitates coping with complex life stressors and moving towards the health side of the ease‒disease continuum. These GRRs play a facilitative role through the repetitive experience of making sense of the constant bombardment of stressors. The avoidance or overcoming of stressors reinforces 66 sense of coherence making it stronger, which affects the overall quality of a person‘s perception of stimuli (Antonosvky, 1987; 1991; Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Cilliers, 2011).
(ii) Generalised resistance resources and resistance deficits (GRR)
The major psychological GRR resistance deficits are conceptualised as a unified concept (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010). Antonovsky (1987) believe that just as wealth, ego strength and cultural stability can be ranked on a continuum, so can stressors (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010). Stressors which are unsuccessfully confronted lead to breakdown and introduce entrophy into the system, which can be described as a life experience characterised by inconsistency, under- or overload and exclusion from participation in decision making (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Cilliers, 2011).
The aetiology of sense of coherence
There are various reasons why individuals develop a strong sense of coherence. These are the developmental and general life experiences, as well as the sources of sense of coherence. The figure 3.1 illustrates the aetiology of sense of coherence in terms of the development experiences, general life experiences and the sources of SOC-enhancing experiences.
Figure 3.1 above relates to the aetiology of sense of coherence. There are various experiences that individuals go through to develop the strength of sense of coherence, namely, developmental experiences, general life experiences and enhancing experiences.
(i) Developmental experiences
Antonovsky and Sagy (1985) proposed three developmental experiences that have a definite influence on sense of coherence, namely, age, parent-child relationship and the stability of the community.
In terms of age, a stronger sense of coherence in individuals results from the development of the total personality (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Nammontri, Robinson & Baker, 2012; Sardu, Mereu, Sotgiu, Andrissi, Jacobson & Paolo, 2012).
(b) Parent-child relationship
The strength of the parent-child relationship is related to strong emotional bonds and open communication channels (Viljoen, 2012).
(c) Stability of the community
Stability in the community will have a positive effect on the development of a strong sense of coherence (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Robinson et al., 2012; Sardu et al., 2012). However, if individuals receive conflicting information, then this results in their being unable to make sense of their environment (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Sardu, et al., 2012).
(ii) General life experiences
The strength of the sense of coherence is furthermore shaped by the general life experiences relating to consistency, a balance between under- or overload of stress, as well as participation in socially valued decision-making processes (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Marx, 2011; Harry & Coetzee, 2011; Harry, 2011).
With regard to consistency, f individual behaviour in the same circumstances is consistent then the individual experiences consistency in life (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Marx, 2011; Harry & Coetzee, 2011; Harry, 2011).
(b) Underload-overload balance
Underload-overload balance is referred to as life experiences that are appropriate to a person‘s capacities. From birth, individuals are controlled by demands emerging from both the external environment or internally. These tasks call on individuals to exert energies, skills and knowledge to cope effectively, which include the resources at one‘s disposal (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Marx, 2011; Harry & Coetzee, 2011; Harry, 2011).
Underload occurs when there is nothing to manage and, as a result, ‗emptiness‘ takes over and personal and role identities wither. A balanced load refers to a consistent history of being called upon to utilise one‘s potential in relation to the resources at one‘s disposal, either found in the inner world or in the world around them (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Feldman, 2011; Hutchinson, Stuart & Pretorius, 2010; Marx, 2011; Harry & Coetzee, 2011; Harry, 2011).
(c) Participation in decision making
Participation in decision making is crucial so that individuals approve of the tasks set before them, that they have considerable performance responsibility and that their behaviour has an impact on the outcome of the experience. Consequently, sense of coherence strengthens as a result of the experience. It is important for the individual to take part in decision making (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Marx, 2011; Harry & Coetzee, 2011; Harry, 2011).
(iii) Sources of experiences that enhance sense of coherence
(a) Higher levels of education
There are different perspectives on how sense of coherence can be enhanced. The higher the educational level the more a sense of coherence is fostered (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Harry & Coetzee, 2011; Harry, 2011; Marx, 2011).
(b) Cultural diversity
Moreover central to the salutogenic model, there are many cultural paths that lead to the development of a strong sense of coherence. Life experiences that result in a strong sense of coherence will be different from culture to culture (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010).
(c) Life spheres of importance
The life spheres of importance refers to individuals who establish spheres of subjective importance (boundaries), of which things do not bother them which can includes factors such as politics which might not interest them (Bezuidenhout & Cilliers, 2010; Harry & Coetzee, 2011; Harry, 2011; Marx, 2011).
In summary, sense of coherence is viewed as a psychological global orientation that influences the way people understand their environment. Individuals having a strong sense of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness indicate a lower rating of stress, less emotional distress and a lower level of anxiety. Generalised resistance resources are characteristics which help an individual to cope, avoid and combat stressors of human existence. Individuals develop a strong sense of coherence through developmental experiences, general life experiences and sources of experiences that enhance sense of coherence.
According to research conducted by Harry (2011) on sense of coherence and call centres, call centre agents have higher levels of sense of coherence, suggesting that call centre employees are more likely to experience effective wellbeing and to counteract burnout levels. Having a higher sense of coherence also suggests that call centre employees apply personal resources in enhancing their resilience to cope with stressors in a call centre work environment.
Theoretical models of emotional intelligence
There are three major models of emotional intelligence, namely, (a) the Salovey and Mayer model (1997) which defines this construct as the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions to facilitate thinking; (b) the Goleman model (2001) that views it as an assortment of various competencies and skills that contribute to successful managerial performance; and (c) the Bar-On model (2002) that describes emotional intelligence as an array of interrelated emotional and social competencies and skills that impact on intelligent behaviour. For the purpose of this study all three of these models will be discussed.
Salovey and Mayer: an ability model of emotional intelligence
The term ‗emotional intelligence‘ was first coined by Peter Salovey and John Mayer (Salovey
& Mayer, 1990). The key idea stemmed from intelligence and emotions. The main proposition of the ability model of Salovey and Mayer (1997) reveals that emotions affect individuals as well as organisational performance (Rangriz & Mehrabi, 2010). In the past, psychology has considered emotion as disruptive, disorganised and characteristic of poor judgements. However, new theories suggest that the emotions play an important role in motivating and directing human activity. Individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature (Rangriz & Mehrabi, 2010). This ability is then viewed as manifesting itself in certain adaptive behaviours (Cheung & Tang, 2010). The theory posits that emotional intelligence is comprised of two areas, namely, experiential (ability to perceive, respond and manipulate emotional information without necessarily understanding it) and strategic (ability to understand and manage emotions without necessarily perceiving feelings well or fully experiencing them) (Chang & Chang, 2010; Devonish & Greenidge, 2010; Jyothi & Jyothi, 2012; Kirk et al., 2011).
Below figure 3.2 illustrates the four branch model by Mayer and Salovey (1997) which describes four areas of capacities and skill that collectively describe many areas of emotional intelligence. This model defines emotional intelligence as involving the abilities to accurately perceive emotions in oneself and others, use emotions to facilitate thinking, understand emotional meaning and manage emotions.
Each area of the four- branch model of emotional intelligence is divided into two branches that range from basic psychological processes to more complex processes of integrating emotion and cognition. In the first branch, emotional perception is the ability to be self-aware of emotions and to express emotions and emotional needs accurately to others (Cheung & Tang, 2010; Rangriz & Mehrabi, 2010; Riaz & Khan, 2012). Emotional perception includes the ability to distinguish between honest and dishonest expressions of emotion. The second branch is emotional integration; this is the ability to generate, use and feel emotion as necessary or employ them in cognitive processess. It is also the ability to distinguish among 72 the different emotions one is feeling and to identify those that are influencing one‘s thought processes (Chang & Chang, 2010; Devonish & Greenidge, 2010; Kirk et al., 2011).
The third branch, which is emotional understanding, is the ability to understand complex emotions (such as feeling two emotions at once) and the ability to recognise transitions from one emotion to the other. Lastly, the fourth branch, emotion management, is the ability to connect or disconnect from an emotion depending on its usefulness in a given situation (Chang & Chang, 2010; Devonish & Greenidge, 2010; Kirk et al., 2011). A depiction of this four-branch model is illustrated in figure 3.2 which outlines the four branches and the corresponding stages in emotion processing associated with each branch.
According to Kirk et al. (2011), emotional intelligence is emerging as a potentially important factor related to various good outcomes, including productivity. Emotional intelligence is also related to better mental and physical health (Chang & Chang, 2010; Kirk et al., 2011). The model of emotional intelligence includes the qualities of effective perception of emotion, understanding of emotion and the management of emotion in the self (Chang & Chang, 2010; Jyothi & Jyothi, 2012).
According to Devonish and Greenidge (2010), the ability model consists of a set of abilities that facilitates the perception, assimilation, understanding and regulation of emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. In research conducted by Hu (2012) on abusive supervisors, emotional intelligence played a role when individuals perceive others and understand their own emotions by rapidly recovering from psychological distress by regulating their own emotions.
Goleman’s emotional intelligence competencies
Goleman’s 2001 model outlines four main constructs of emotional intelligence. The first is self-awareness, that is, the ability to read one’s emotions and recognise their impact while using inside feelings to guide decisions (Allam, 2011; Bailey, Murphy & Porock, 2011; Dumbvara, 2011; Yunus, Ghazali & Hassan, 2012)). Self-management, the second construct, involves the process of controlling one’s emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. The third construct, social awareness, includes the ability to sense, understand and react to others‘ emotions while comprehending social networks. Finally, relationship management, the fourth construct, entails the ability to inspire, influence and develop others while managing conflict (Bailey et al., 2011; Dumbvara, 2011).
These constructs or emotional competencies are not viewed as innate talents, but rather as learned capabilities that must be worked on and developed to achieve outstanding performance. The theory posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. The clustering of the competencies under the various constructs is not random; they appear in synergistic clusters or groupings that support and facilitate each other (Bailey et al., 2011; Dumbvara, 2011).
Table 3.2 illustrates Goleman’s 2001 conceptual model of emotional intelligence and corresponding emotional competencies. The constructs and competencies fall under one of four categories: the recognition of emotions in oneself or others and the regulation of emotion in oneself or others.
According to Dumbvara (2011), psychologists and sociologists began to acknowledge that the non-cognitive, affective side of the individual, which manifests in empathetic interpersonal relations, plays an equally important role in personal development in such cognitive skills as problem solving, decision making and memory.
Research done on nurses by Bailey et al. (2011) recognised nurses as having the ability to regulate their own emotions which assisted in guiding their decision. This, in turn, increased their self-awareness which made them able to reflect on their past experiences and identify strengths and weaknesses. Consequently, they were able to control their emotions in a fast changing work environment. The emotional competencies involved in emotional intelligence are learned capabilities but must be worked on and developed to achieve performance (Bailey et al., 2011; Roy & Chaturvedi, 2011).
Goleman‘s notion of emotional intelligence relates to a skill that an individual can control through self awareness, improve it through self-management, understand the effects through compatibility and through relationship management and to behave in a way that develops their own or others‘ spirits (Bailey et al., 2011; Shaemi et al., 2011).
According to research conducted by Yu-Chi Wu (2011), emotional intelligence has a positive impact on job performance, as individuals who are emotionally intelligent have the capacity to be aware of their own emotions and also their relationship with others. Moreover, individuals with high emotional intelligence are generally aware of, and manage, their emotions in terms of retaining a positive mental state.
Bar-On‘s mixed model of emotional intelligence
Bar-On‘s (2002) mixed model of emotional intelligence focuses on interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, adaptability, stress management and general mood (Roy & Chatuvedi, 2011). Below is figure 3.3 which describes emotional intelligence as a cross-section of interrelated emotional-social competencies, skills and facilitators, which determine how effectively people understand and express themselves, understand others, and cope with daily demands.
Mixed models are comprised of a variety of behavioural components that are considered to be important aspects of emotional intelligence. These include personality, intellect, motivation, attitudes and social skills (Van Zyl & De Bruin, 2012).
Bar-On’s (2002), model of emotional intelligence relates to the potential for performance and success, instead of performance or success itself, and is considered process-oriented rather than outcome-oriented. It focuses on an array of emotional and social abilities, which includes the ability to be aware of, understand and express oneself, the ability to be aware of, understand and relate to others, the ability to deal with strong emotions, and the ability to adapt to change and solve problems of a social or personal nature (Bar-On, 1997; Van Zyl & De Bruin, 2012). In his model, Bar-On outlines five components of emotional intelligence: intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. Within these components are sub-components, all of which are outlined in figure 3.3. Bar-On states that emotional intelligence develops over time and that it can be improved through training, programming and therapy (Bar-On, 2002). According to this model, emotional-social intelligence is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands.
To be emotionally and socially intelligent is to effectively understand and express oneself, to understand and relate well with others, and to successfully cope with daily demands, challenges and pressures. This is based, first and foremost, on one‘s intrapersonal ability to be aware of oneself, to understand one‘s strengths and weaknesses, and to express one‘s feelings and thoughts non-destructively. On the interpersonal level, being emotionally and socially intelligent encompasses the ability to be aware of others‘ emotions, feelings and needs, and to establish and maintain cooperative, constructive and mutually satisfying relationships (Bar-On, 2002; Hu, 2012; Van Zyl & De Bruin, 2012). Ultimately, being emotionally and socially intelligent means to effectively manage personal, social and environmental change by realistically and flexibly coping with the immediate situation, solving problems and making decisions. To do this, we need to manage emotions so that they work for us and not against us, and we need to be sufficiently optimistic, positive and self-motivated (Bar-On, 2002; Van Zyl & De Bruin, 2012).
The conceptualisations of emotional-social intelligence include one or more of the following key components:
• the ability to recognise, understand and express emotions and feelings
• the ability to understand how others feel and relate with them
• the ability to manage and control emotions
• the ability to manage change, adapt and solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature
• the ability to generate positive affect and be self-motivated.
According to Van Zyl and De Bruin (2012), the mixed model of emotional intelligence has been shown to be a valid and significant predictor of many life outcomes, namely, conflict management, negotiation and job performance, and it has been linked to positive outcomes for health. In research conducted by Gryn (2010) in a call centre work environment, individuals with higher than average emotional quotients are capable and successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. Emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence contribute equally to a person‘s general intelligence, which then offers an indication of one‘s potential to succeed in life.
In summary, emotional intelligence is viewed as the ability to recognise, understand, manage and utilise emotions to facilitate thinking which generate positive effect to be self-motivated. It is also viewed as having various competencies and skills, which include interrelated emotional and social competencies that impact on intelligent behaviour
According to research done by Huang, Chan, Lam and Nan (2010), emotional intelligence in a call centre environment, where employees have to manage their emotions frequently and extensively, has been shown to have a strong effect on work attitudes. Social skills are important for managing customer relationships. In addition, emotional intelligence is relevant to work behaviours in call centres because employees with high emotional intelligence have better interpersonal skills and abilities to tolerate emotional pressure and are less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and burnout.
TADIGM PERSPECTIVES OF THE RESEARABLE OF CONTENT
ABSTRACT / SUMMARY
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER 1: SCIENTIFIC OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH
1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 AIMS OF THE RESEARCH
1.4 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
1.5 THE RESEARCH MODEL
1.7 RESEARCH DESIGN
1.8 PHASE 2: THE EMPIRICAL STUDY
1.9 CHAPTER DIVISION
1.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER TWO: META-THEORETICAL CONTEXT OF THE STUDY: COPING AND WELLNESS IN A CALL CENTRE ENVIRONMENT
2.1 THE CALL CENTRE ENVIRONMENT
2.2 COPING BEHAVIOUR IN A CALL CENTRE ENVIRONMENT
2.3 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND COPING
2.4 CHANGING NATURE OF CAREERS IN A CALL CENTRE ENVIRONMENT
2.5 IMPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYEE WELLNESS INTERVENTIONS
CHAPTER THREE: WELLNESS- RELATED DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTES
3.1 CONCEPTUALISATION OF WELLNESS-RELATED DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTES
3.2 THEORETICAL MODELS OF WELLNESS-RELATED DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTES
3.3 PERSON-CENTRED VARIABLES INFLUENCING PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS
3.4 IMPLICATIONS OF WELLNESS-RELATED DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTES FOR COPING AND WELLNESS INTERVENTIONS IN THE CALL CENTRE ENVIRONMENT
3.5 INTEGRATION AND EVALUATION
3.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER FOUR: RESILIENCY-RELATED BEHAVIOURAL CAPACITIES
4.1 CONCEPTUALISATION OF RESILIENCY-RELATED BEHAVIOURAL CAPACITIES
4.2 THEORETICAL MODELS
4.3 PERSON-CENTRED VARIABLES INFLUENCING CAREER ADAPTABILITY AND HARDINESS
4.4 IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESILIENCY-RELATED CAPACITIES FOR COPING AND WELLNESS INTERVENTIONS IN A CALL CENTRE ENVIRONMENT
4.5 INTEGRATION AND EVALUATION
4.6 CONSTRUCTING A PSYCHOLOGICAL COPING PROFILE
4.7 EVALUATION AND FORMULATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
4.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 5: EMPIRICAL STUDY
5.1 DETERMINATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE
5.2 CHOOSING AND MOTIVATING THE PSYCHOMETRIC BATTERY
5.3 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE PSYCHOMETRIC BATTERY
5.4 SCORING OF THE PSYCHOMETRIC BATTERY
5.5 FORMULATION OF THE RESEARCH HYPHOTHESES
5.6 STATISTICAL PROCESSING OF THE DATA
5.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 6: RESEARCH RESULTS
6.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
6.2 CORRELATIONAL STATISTICS
6.3 INFERENTIAL (MULTIVARIATE) STATISTICS
6.4 INTEGRATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH RESULTS
6.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
7.3 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
7.5 EVALUATION OF THE RESEARCH
7.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
LIST OF REFERENCES
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