THE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST’S PERSPECTIVE

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CHAPTER3 A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS

The fact that the mind rules the body is, in spite of its neglect by biology and medicine, the most fundamental fact which we know about the process of life.
Franz Alexander 1965

INTRODUCTION

« LISTEN TO THE PATIENT …. HE IS TELLING YOU HIS DIAGNOSIS. »
The Medical Hypnoanalysis Model will be investigated as a therapeutic modality in this chapter. Hypnosis as therapeutic tool will also be described.
In 1975 a group of physicians formed the Society of Medical Hypnoanalysts now called the American Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysts. The term « medical » is based on a Latin root meaning « to heal » (Scott, 1993:xiv).
In recent studies it is more widely accepted that the most important seat of health is the brain. Cousins (1989:73) states that « Brain researchers now believe that what happens in the body can affect the brain, and what happens in the brain can affect . the body ». Medical Hypnoanalysis uses the term « healing within the self’, because the mind tends to heal itself as well as protect itself with numerous defence mechanisms. In this therapy the therapist acts as facilitator and helper to the mind, just as the physician facilitates and helps the body to heal (Scott, 1993:xv).
The Medical Hypnoanalyst uses a specific structured model in therapy, that is similar to a physician’sprocedures. The client expresses the symptoms and the therapist looks for the diagnosis of the problem. A tentative diagnosis is made using the client’sfull history, then a projective test is used to verify the tentative diagnosis. Then the treatment proceeds, by means of Medical Hypnoanalysis.

DEFINITION OF MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS

According to Scott (1993:xiii) « Medical Hypnoanalysis is dynamic, short term and directed. » It is dynamic in that the treatment approach emphasises causes rather than symptoms, explanations rather than conscious forces, as being the ultimate origin of the psychopathology. It is short term in that in most cases thirty or less sessions are needed to complete the therapy. It is directed therapy in that the therapist after making a diagnosis, uses a medical model of therapy to alleviate the symptoms by means of resolving underlying unconscious causes (Scott, 1993:xiii; Matez, 1992: 12; Modlin, 1999:27).
Medical Hypnoanalysis examines the symptoms the patient presents by means of a case history, observing verbal and non-verbal communication, while seeking for subconscious clues to the ultimate causes of the symptoms, in order to make a psychodynamic diagnosis. After the client has been introduced to hypnosis, the majority of the therapeutic sessions are conducted with the patient in the hypnotised state (Scott, 1993:xiii; Matez, 1992: 12; Modlin, 1999:27).
In discussing the concept Medical Hypnoalalysis it is necessary to differentiate between Hypnosis and Medical Hypnoanalysis. Hypnotherapy is the tool that is used in this research.

HYPNOSIS – A DEFINITION

Van Pelt (1953:6) defines hypnosis as follows: « Hypnosis is a concentration of the mind. Anything which can capture and concentrate a subject’s attention sufficiently, can put the mind into a state of hypnosis. »
Bryan (1974, lecture #5, Course 101 & 107, The American Institute of Hypnosis), being one of the founders of the Society of Medical Hypnoanalysts in 1975 defines hypnosis as follows:
« Hypnosis is a normal physiological, altered state of consciousness, similar to but not the same as being awake; similar to, but not the same as, being asleep; and it is produced by the presence of two conditions: (1) A central focus of attention, and (2) surrounding areas of inhibition ».
« The state of hypnosis produces three things:

  • ( 1 ) An increased concentration of the mind.
  • An increased relaxation of the body.
  • An increased susceptibility to suggestion. »

Honiotes (in Zelling 1995) sees hypnosis: « Broadly defined as a state of direct and indirect concentration with or without relaxation in which a person may accept or reject suggestions good and bad. »
Zelling (1987:3, and 1995) defines hypnosis as: « Expectancy and acceptance. » He states that a client who comes for hypnotherapy expects to go into a trance-like state. Due to the fact that all hypnosis is self-hypnosis, the client is already hypnotised when entering the consulting rooms and will accept most suggestions. Hypnotherapy supplies the client with insight into the underlying cause of his problem and having this insight is able to heal or cure the symptom (Zelling, 1987:3).

HYPNOANALYSIS

Hypnoanalysis deals only with those events which contributed directly to the client’s problem. Those events are the ones which had the most voltage or emotional impact on the person and thus produced alterations in emotions and subsequent behaviour (Scott, 1993:63; Matez, 1992:11; Modlin, 1999:59). Scott (1993:63) states further that Hypnoanalysis differs from psychoanalysis, because psychoanalysis analyses all decisions and behaviour, which can be very time consuming.

THE SUBCONSCIOUS AND THE CONSCIOUS MIND

The brain is divided into two parts namely, the conscious and the subconscious. The conscious mind is the logical, thinking, reasoning and decision-making part of the mind. On the other hand the subconscious mind is the « memory bank » and it records everything that happens to a person during his life. It records everything from before birth till the present (Scott, 1993:52; Modlin, 1999:44; Ritzman, 1984:54). According to Matez (1992:4) the subconscious mind  » … monitors and controls virtually everything  that goes on in your mind, body and in your life ».
The subconscious mind records everything, even in the sleeping state, or when the person is unconscious, day-dreaming or under anaesthesia. This happens from before birth, through childhood till the present and in children who are in a hypnotic trance most of the time. Their conscious, logical, thinking mind has not developed well enough and anything can enter the subconscious, without the conscious realising it. The information that enters the subconscious can be neutral or can have, positive or negative suggestions. This information is not screened or rejected when it is not a suitable suggestion. The subconscious accepts all the information, without questioning it, whereas the conscious can reject information it does not want.
Negative suggestions (fear, panic, anxiety, grief, depression, sadness, intense pain, etc.) are loaded with emotional energy (8), that goes directly to the subconscious. According to Matez (1992:7) « this highly charged emotionally negative information » accumulates in the subconscious and becomes the « underlying problem or real problem » (9). This « real problem » is the origin of the manifesting symptoms.
Between the two parts of the mind is a « brain barrier » (10), preventing the conscious mind to access information stored in the subconscious mind. This prevents one from seeing or understanding the information in the subconscious that causes the problem or symptom. The lack of knowledge in the conscious about the information stored in the subconscious, causes the inability to change these wrong perceptions formed there. The subconscious just accepts information, without thinking, reasoning or understanding it and then responds to it (Scott, 1993:73; Modlin, 1999:60; Ritzman, 1997:7). Matez (1992:7) states that the subconscious mind does not have the ability « to erase thought, and that’s why we have problems ».
The greatest need of the subconscious is to protect and therefore it tries to deal with the stress (11) experienced. According to Matez (1992:9) the subconscious « is designed for survival and will do whatever is necessary to insure survival, no matter how unacceptable or undesirable it may be to the logical and thinking mind ». To the subconscious it is preferable to have the symptom rather than to have to deal with something that could be worse.
As people experience all kinds of stress daily, they deal with these stressors with all the information, knowledge and experience available from the mind (5). When something suddenly happens that causes more stress {11) than a person can handle, the subconscious mind provides information to help or protect, which can be positive, neutral or negative. The stress activates the « real problem », and because it is loaded with a lot of negative emotional energy, it can not be used (12) (Figure 3.3, Matez, 1992:8).
To protect the person, the mind puts « a wall of protection » (13) up as a barrier and this then becomes the « symptoms » {14). Matez (1992:8) states that the symptoms experienced are not the « problem », but the « symptoms » of the « underlying problem ». Humans are in the habit of producing the symptoms in specific ways of behaving, feeling and thinking {15). The symptoms are far « better » to have than dealing with the « real problem », or dealing with something that could be worse than the symptoms. To take medicine may help to relieve the symptom (16), but lhe « real problem » is not addressed {Matez, 1992:1 0). The true cause of the problem is hiding in the subconscious and the symptoms are just clinical symptoms the client is suffering from.
According to Ritzman (1992: 101 ), who delivered over five thousand infants during his career as gynaecologist, a new-born infant experiences fear as soon as it becomes aware of leaving the « shelter of mother’s body ». He also states that the infant starts to cry as soon as it can breathe, as the experience of birth as well as the separation from mother creates fear. Ritzman (1992:101) emphasises that the « exploration of birth should be a standard part of the treatment in any case where anxiety is involved ». The birth experience creates a « latent death expectancy », that can remain in the subconscious mind and can give voltage to a subsequent experience (Ritzman, 1989:28). The aspects in Table 3.1 are characteristics of the Initial Sensitising Event.

CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH STUDY
1.1 AWARENESS OF THE PROBLEM AND MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH
1.2 THE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST’S PERSPECTIVE
1.3 THE MEDICAL HYPNOANAL YST’S PERSPECTIVE
1.4 RESEMBLANCE BETWEEN THE VIEWPOINT OF THE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST AND THE MEDICAL HYPNOANAL YST
1.5 LITERATURE SURVEY
1.6 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.7 HYPOTHESES
1.8 AIM OF THE STUDY
1.9 CLARIFICATION OF THE CONCEPTS
1.10 DIVISION OF CHAPTERS IN THE RESEARCH
1.11 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 2 A LITERATURE REVIEW OF ANXIETY AND THE BIRTH EXPERIENCE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 DEFINITION OF ANXIETY
2.3 CONTRIBUTORS TO ANXIETY
2.4 THE FRAMEWORK OF EMOTIONAL DISORDERS
2.5 MEMORY
2.6 FIRST RECOGNITION OF THE BIRTH TRAUMA
2.7 THE BIRTH EXPERIENCE
2.8 THE PATHOGENIC IMPACT OF THE BIRTH EXPERIENCE
2.9 THE POST-BIRTH EXPERIENCE
2.10 CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT OF ANXIETY
2.11 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 3 A LITERATURE REVIEW OF MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 DEFINITION OF MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS
3.3 HYPNOANALYSIS
3.4 THE SUBCONSCIOUS AND CONSCIOUS MIND
3.5 THE TRIPLE ALLERGENIC THEORY
3.6 THE ORDER OF IMPORTANCE FOR SURVIVAL
3.7 THE SUBCONSCIOUS DIAGNOSIS (UNDERLYING DIAGNOSIS)
3.8 PROCEDURE-THE SEVEN « R’s »
3.9 METHODOLOGY OF MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS 93
3.10 SUMMARY
CHAPTER4 RESEARCH DESIGN
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 AIM OF THE STUDY
4.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
4.4 RESEARCH AND REASONING STRATEGIES
4.5 METHODS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY DEVELOPMENT
4.6 PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES
4.7 GOALS FOR THERAPY
4.8 DATAANALYSIS
4.9 CREDIBILITY, RELIABILITY, VALIDITY OF THE RESEARCH
4.10 GUIDE LINES FOR THE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
4.11 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 5 REPORT OF THE CASE STUDIES
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 CASE DISCUSSIONS
5.3 CONCLUSION FROM THE CASE STUDIES
5.4 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 6 GUIDELINES FOR THE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST IN THE TREATMENT OF ANXIETY
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 ORIENTATION TO BIRTH REGRESSIONS
6.3 PRE-WORK TO AGE REGRESSION
6.4 AGE REGRESSION TO THE BIRTH EXPERIENCE
6.5 THE BIRTH EXPERIENCE
6.6 GUIDE LINES FOR THE THERAPIST
6.7 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 7 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THIS STUDY
1.7 INTRODUCTION
7.2 CONCLUSIONS FROM THE LITERATURE
7.3 FINDINGS EMANATING FROM THE EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION
7.4 CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY THE STUDY
7.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
7.6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
7.7 IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY
7.8 CONCLUSION
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
GUIDE LINES FOR EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGISTS IN THE THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATION OF THE MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS WITH ANXIETY CLIENTS

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