The effect of high broiler litter diets as survival ration on the health of sheep

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION

In the 1950’s, poultry waste emerged in the USA as an alternate source of nitrogen in ruminant nutrition (Fontenot, 1991). The product has been classified into two main types because of their distinct differences in composition: broiler litter, consisting of the excreta (urine and faeces) from broilers kept on deep litter systems with « bedding » material, and pure poultry excreta from layers housed in battery cages (dried caged poultry waste )(Fontenot & Jurubescu, 1980). Broiler litter differs in composition from layer manure mainly because of the differences in diets fed and the bedding material that is mixed with the broiler excreta.
The dramatic growth of the poultry industry over the last 40 years created a serious waste disposal problem. The utilisation of the waste through ruminant animals became a convenient option of disposing of the waste. The product is readily accepted by the cattle and sheep farmer, not because of any superior feeding qualities, but simply because it is cheaply available.
The feeding of poultry waste prompted active research in the USA on the use of the product. Aspects such as its nutritive value, its effect on the health of the animal and th  human and suitable methods of processing the waste have been investigated (Belasco, 1954; Brugman et aI., 1954; Ammerman et aI., 1966; Bhattacharya & Fontenot, 1966; Bhattacharya & Taylor, 1975; Smith et al., 1978). Guidelines have been compiled on the use of poultry waste as a ruminant feed (Fontenot, 1991; Carter & Poore, 1998; Crickenberger & Goode 1998). Presently, the main thrust in research in the USA seems to be on methods of processing  nd storing of the product and effects there-of on nutritive value (Carter & Poore, 1998; Kwak et al., 1998).
World wide, research has been conducted on the use of poultry excreta as an animal feed, e.g. in the 1990’s research continued in Africa (Manyuchi et aI., 1992; Ngongoni & Manyuchi, 1993) and in the Middle East (Deshck et al., 1998; Brosh et al., 1998).

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CHAPTER 1
1.0 Literature review
1.1 General introduction
1.2 Composition of poultry Litte
1.2.1 Crude protein
1.2.2 Asll and minerals
1.2.3 Available energy
1.2.~ Fat and fibre
1.2.5 \Titamins
1.3 Animal performance
1.4 Potential problems and risks of feeding poultry waste
1.4.2 Gastro-intestinal impaction Problem of bloat
1.4.3 Bacteria, fungi, patllogens and toxins Parasites
1.4.4 Carry over of drugs
1.4.5 Concl usi on
1.5 Legal aspects regarding the feeding of poultry litter
CHAPTER 2 The effect of high broiler litter diets as survival ration on the health of sheep
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Materials and methods
2.3 Ftesults
2.4 Discussi on
CHAPTER 3 Site and extent of digestion of broiler litter fed with or without molasses as a survival feeding strategy in sheep
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Materials and methods
3.3 Fleslllts
3 .4 Discllssi on
CHAPTER 4 Broiler litter as a somce of selenillm for sheep
4.1 Introdllctio
4.2 Materials and methods
4.3 Fleslllts
4.4 DisCllssi on
CHAPTERS Sites of digestion ofnlltrients in diets containing different levels of Broiler litter 
CHAPTER 6 Different levels of broiler litters in diets of sheep on weight gains and conditions in their digestive tracts
CHAPTER 7 Sensory characteristics of meat and subcutaneous fat composition of sheep fed different levels of broiler litter 
CHAPTERS The feeding of broiler litter as a survival feed – Conclusions
REFERENCES

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