Frame of Reference
Within this chapter, we will describe the frame of theoretical structure in the literature reviewed that we based to compare with our empirical findings. Following is the discussion of how to use e-learning model in combination with TAM to illustrate our suggestion.
The discussion of education overview around the world is presented, thereby, to define the scope of the market we chose as well as the indirect factors explanation in this section.
Hiltz et al. (2005) stated that we are in the process of moving from the offer of traditional physical courses by locals, regional, and national universities to the offer of virtual courses using technologies to support constructivist, collaborative, students-centered pedagogy by many global Universities. Moreover, according to Rienties et al. (2009), Brouwer et al. (2009) Löfström et al. (2008), and Volman (2005), the increased learning possibilities afforded by Information Communication Technology (ICT) which have been shown to provide a powerful learning tool for students. Because of the changing in expectation that lead to traditional teaching methods become questioned. This creates the challenge of facing new learning environments, thus, supplements to the complexity and pressures when teaching growingly international students for academic staff (Rienties, 2012).
Furthermore, Balubaid (2013) mentioned that various functions that involve teaching, the academic departments at colleges and universities perform scheduling, registration and course management. Academic departments need to decide which devices to adopt and time to apply them to let them functioning effectively because of the emerging of new technologies and the evolvement of digital culture. Nowadays, a strategic resource in organizations is knowledge, so the key decision-making is the leverage of knowledge.
According to Barber et al. (2013) many universities have already used technology in education. One of the examples brought out here is the usage of MOOC in UK Universities, which can helps both Universities and students to interact with each other even from distance at anytime. Another discussion from NMC report that all technology devices such as smartphones, computers, and other mobile devices are being used in many Universities, which is called the BYOD movement. This integration has changed the nature of work and learning activities that helped education to happen anywhere, at anytime. For instance, the personal mobile devices usage for students in Griffith University in Australia helps them to understand the subject at hand. By using the technology that students already familiar and comfortable with will help students to approach their learning easily. In addition to BYOD movement, the University of London has well-developed their IT service desk to support student connection to their wireless network, Eduroam. Moreover, University also uses many other technology tools such as 3D printers, robotics, and 3D modeling web-based applications that become accessible to many people.
In this paper, we chose Jönköping International Business School (JIBS) in Jönköping region, Sweden as the case study and the specific market for analysis and illustrate our discussion because of the availability and readiness of resources that we can research from where we study our bachelor. As stated on its’ website, the University was enrolled in 1994 and within twenty-years of development, the school has grown to a comprehensive institution offering Bachelor, Master and Doctoral education. However, JIBS is still a young institution and there are many opportunities for changes and improvements in the upcoming future. We will explain one of these opportunities in the later part.
Schleicher (2014) provided the resource proves that policy is an important factor in education because of its indirect influence to both students’ learning approaches and teacher’s work. Moreover, the reflection from teachers’ perspective on policy can help to make it effectively use. Schleicher (2014) also mentioned that there are four areas where the comparative results can improve policies to make the teaching profession more attractive and productive. They relate to how education systems prepare and enhance a high-quality teaching force, how they boost effective teaching through compliment and feedback, how teachers differ in their approaches.
The evolution of education
In this section, we will describe how education has changed in recent years, as well as explain all the models we will use in this section. However, because flipped classroom has not implemented in the market we chose, therefore, we will limit the discussion of flipped classroom model, but to discuss more on the description of e-learning models, hence, we would like to suggest to add the interaction aspect in flipped classroom model into the e-learning model and what will be the influence of this suggestion due to the availability of the resource.
Hiltz et al. (2005) stated that the latest in a long list of social technologies is online learning that was represented to advance distance learning by adding various augmentations, substitutions, or blending technologies with pedagogical approaches. The handling for technologies include: correspondence courses, mail, and printed materials, telephone or audio recordings, TV or videos, computer instruction, group interaction, multimedia materials and Websites, simulation and gaming, collaborative learning, asynchronous learning networks (ALN), collaborative knowledge systems, wireless and handheld devices. These technologies have been combined by most current distance courses.
Hiltz et al. (2005) also discussed about the changes in educational technology and pedagogy that can be seen in fifty years from now, as the changes in the nature of higher education as an institution.
Another observation is that the effective use and integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education practices was researched in a significant volume in the recent years (Tselios et al., 2011). To differentiate the e-learning systems from the “face-to-face” learning environments is by the degree of technology usage and the gradual shift of control and responsibility of the learning progress to students, giving them the opportunity to learn at anytime and anyplace. Based on Mason et al. (2013), the increasing use of flipped classroom is primarily attributed to two movements. Bishop and Verleger (2013, p.2) said that the global technological movement that empowers the combination of information technology into education “at an extremely low-cost” is the first movement. The second movement is represented by the ideological movement and ideas that have been spread through technological channels.
The flipped classroom model
According to Abeysekera et al. (2014) and Bishop et al. (2013), there is still a missing point of agreement regarding the implementation of flipped classroom, even though this concept is an interesting topic for many researchers (Al-Zahrani, 2015). However, in flipped classroom, the activities that take place in traditional classes have to be considered before coming to class and vice versa (Stone, 2012). These activities are stated in Figure 2.
7. Frame of Reference
7.1 Pedagogical research
7.2 The evolution of education
7.3 The flipped classroom model
7.4 The e-learning model – category A
7.5 Connect model to flipped classroom
7.6 Different discussion of flipped classroom
7.7 The development of technology
8. Methodology and method
9. Empirical findings
10.1 Pedagogical research
10.2 The evolution of education
10.3 Technology development
10.4 The models
12.1The role of teacher
12.5Strength and Weakness
12.6 Suggestion for future study
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Technology acceptance in blended learning: The case of Jönköping International Business School