CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This chapter discusses the management of adult learners’ in-service training in agricultural institutions. These institutions mainly train adult learners. Adult learning in agricultural in-service institutions is currently prioritised in South Africa to develop adult skills. Masukela, Lubbe and Pelser (2013) posit that skills development through education and training have always been the powerful lever for improving both individual opportunity and institutional competitiveness. It is now mandatory for the management of agricultural institutions providing in-service training to skill their workers. Agriculture is a continuously changing field. Therefore, it is a practical plan and a well-acknowledged fact that many rural communities in developing countries depend reasonably on agriculture. During the 1990s, it became clear that adult learning must be an essential part of all strategies for development (Nafukho, Amutabi & Otunga 2005; National Assessment of Adult Literacy 2003). This implies that its management is equally important and thus should be prioritised in these institutions. It is essential for the management of agricultural institutions to have workforce development programmes that comply with the demands of developing workers and consider their needs as adult learners.
During this era of land distribution in South Africa, it is now imperative and compelling to train people who are meant to advance production, contribute to the economy and eradicate poverty. This is in line with the Sustainable Development Goal four and one, both of which emphasise the promotion of lifelong learning and eradication of poverty respectively, as stated in the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, in 2012. The National Development Plan (NDP) 2030 proposed a model for a workable and pragmatic land reform based on the principles of a more rapid transfer of agricultural land to black beneficiaries without distorting land markets or business confidence in the agribusiness sector. The NDP equally echoes the importance of skills development and emphasises the need for lifelong learning (NDP 2010). What South Africa currently needs are agricultural workers who are skilled and can be able to contribute significantly to the economy and productive use of land that is currently mooted for distribution. Agricultural Training Institutions mainly offer training to adult learners. However, there is insufficient literature on how these institutions are and can be managed. This presents a challenge and could imply that learners receiving instructions in these institutions are not important. Thus there is a dire need to relook at the history of education provisioning and instruction in the agricultural sector generally and agricultural institutions in particular.
According to Magher (2018) a conceptual framework determines a theory and methodology for a current research project that uses previous researches to determine the theory.https://classroom.synonym.com/meaning-conceptual-framework-research-6664512.html. A conceptual framework does not only summarise current research that is published, it is much more than a literature review. It takes into consideration all current theories, findings and contexts for one’s research question. There are many theories that are used in different research studies. This study utilised the conceptual framework as opposed to the theoretical framework. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research. Theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory that explains why the research problem under investigation exists http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/theoreticalframework.) There are different types of theories used by different theorists, researchers and academics. In the current research, the conceptual framework is defined and applied as an intervention. Conceptual framework comprises of concepts and ideas that are organized in such a way that makes communication smooth. It is an organised form of thinking for completing a project (http://www.answers.com/Q/). Conceptual framework can be effective in answering the research question that explores the role of management in managing the in-service training of adult learners in agricultural institutions.
As a consistent and comprehensive theoretical framework emerging from an inductive integration of previous literature, theories, and other pertinent information define conceptual framework (Tashakkori & Teddlie 2003). These authors continue to mention that it is usually the basis for reframing the research questions and formulating hypotheses, or making informal tentative predictions about the possible outcome of a study. According to Shields and Hassan (2006:315), a conceptual framework “acts like a map to provide coherence for an empirical inquiry, and is used in research to outline possible courses of action, or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought”.
THE HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
Agricultural institutions in their nature have been set up to train workers and or prospective workers in agricultural nuances. Since the establishment of the democratic South African government in 1994, visionary policies and programmes, strategies and agricultural education, and training governance structures have been established (Didiza 2005). These are supported by sound legislation. In 2005, the National Agricultural Education and Training Strategy was launched with the aim to address the needs of the country’s economy and improvement of agricultural production through quality agricultural education and training. The implementation of the AET strategy was supported by the establishment of a National Agricultural Education and Training Forum (NAETF). Considering that the AET strategy outlines the mechanisms for addressing identified disparities in education provision and access to opportunities, an analysis of agricultural education and training barriers is essential.
There is a lack of formal Agricultural Education and Training (AET) and a lack of knowledge and understanding of agriculture as an essential aspect of education in the agricultural sector (AET 2006). This poses a threat towards the sector ably contributing to the country’s economy because of insufficient education programmes that could enable this to happen. Therefore, food supply may be endangered because there are inadequate means of skills transfer. At the launch of the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences at the University of South Africa (UNISA) in August 2006, the Honourable Minister of Agriculture and Land Affairs, Ms L Xingwana (2006), stated that the National Agricultural Education and Training Forum (NAETF) would lead to a programme of action. While that is the position, agricultural training and management are still inadequate.
Agricultural Institutions pre-democratic dispensation
To contextualise the historical development of agricultural institutions in South Africa, it is prudent to refer to the historical development of farming in this country. Since land possession is the pillar of agricultural activities, it is necessary to allude to land possession and dispossession that was carried out by the early colonialists since they arrived in South Africa about four hundred years ago. As a result of the various colonial strategies of dispossessing the indigenous people off their land, it culminated in the Native Lands Act of 1913. The Act prohibited the establishment of new farming operations, sharecropping and or cash rentals by Blacks as indigenous people, outside of the reserves (Deininger 1999). Indigenous farmers were consequently confined to only 13 per cent of all South African land (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EroMc8qGxdE). Because of the small size of land allocated to each indigenous farmer, they could only produce for subsistence on communally owned land. Fortunately, this is being reversed in the new dispensation.
Before the new political dispensation, the agricultural training institutions, therefore, served mainly the interests of the predominantly White commercial farmers who needed skilled labour for their commercialised agricultural production. Skills training in agriculture were to serve mainly these commercial farming enterprises. There are those agricultural institutions that were established by the Apartheid regime after 1948 under the policy of separate development mainly to serve subsistence agricultural areas of the then farmer of that regime, which was revised in 2009 though the amendment bill property and land act to comply with requirements of the new dispensation.
Agricultural Institutions in the new dispensation
Research by Alston, LIbecap and Muller (1997) indicates that the definition of property rights plays a relevant role in natural resources preservation. It pointed out that the lack of legal titles is one cause of violent conflicts and is associated with forest depletion in Brazil. The research suggested the need for a more efficient governmental mechanism to supply and protect property rights. In this context, it is the property rights for people to own land for agricultural purposes in South Africa.
Emanating from the ideals of the Freedom Charter which states that the land shall be shared among those who work it and that restrictions of land ownership on a racial basis shall be ended (Freedom Charter 1955), the new dispensation has paid attention to the question of land distribution and ownership. The Freedom Charter also alludes to the need of the state to help the farm labourers with implements, seeds, tractors and dams to conserve the soil and assist the tillers. The question of freedom of movement to enable anyone to occupy land wherever they choose, was also guaranteed.
The ideals of the Freedom Charter were included in the drafting of the Constitution of South Africa in 1996. Clause 25 of the Constitution protects property rights, mainly the right to own land (RSA, 1996), which is currently under review. According to Keefer, Philip, Knack and Stephen (2002: 127) “these property rights are fundamental as not only do they empower farm workers (who now have the opportunity to become farmers) and reduce inequality”. Their transaction costs are less than larger plots of hired labour (Van den Brink, Rogier, Sonwabo Thomas & Binswanger 2007). Many of these family members were unemployed. Therefore, the previously unemployed people will now participate in the economy and better the country’s economic growth (Torstensson 1994).
The new dispensation adopted land reform as a government policy. The land reform process focused on three areas: restitution, land tenure reform and land redistribution (Moseley, McCusker & Brent 2010). Land restitution was one of the promises made by the African National Congress when it came to power in South Africa in 1994. Under the Land Restitution Act of 1994, persons or communities who lost their property as a result of Apartheid laws or practices after 1913 were invited to submit claims for restitution (return of land) or compensation (usually financial). The intention was to enable those who mainly want land for commercial use to have land tenured. Land tenure reform is a system of recognising people’s right to own land and therefore control of the land, hence the need to redistribute such land.
Land Redistribution is the most essential component of land reform in South Africa. According to redistribution policy, the land was bought from its owners (willing seller) by the government (willing buyer) and redistributed, in order to maintain public confidence in the land market (Lahiff 2008). Initially, land was distributed with compensation. With the slow progress of land transfer, there is now a call for land distribution without compensation (Republic of South Africa: Parliament 2018). This has vast insinuations on agricultural institutions and their management.
It is reported by the Financial and Fiscal Commission (2016) that the South African government has invested more than R60bn into land reform projects since 1994. Despite this investment, the land improvement programme, as mentioned by Dawood (2016) has, however, not stimulated development in the targeted rural areas, and that land reform as a mechanism for agricultural development and job creation has failed.
CHAPTER 1 ORIENTATION OF THE RESEARCH
1.2. BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH
1.3. RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.4. RATIONALE FOR THE RESEARCH
1.5. AIM OF RESEARCH
1.6. LITERATURE REVIEW
1.7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
1.8. RESEARCH ETHICS
1.9. LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
1.10. KEY CONCEPTS USED IN THE RESEARCH
1.11. PLANNING OF THE RESEARCH
CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.2. THE HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
2.3. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGING AN AGRICULTURAL ADULT IN-SERVICE TRAINING
2.4. THE NATURE OF ADULT EDUCATION
2.5. MANAGING ADULT LEARNING
2.6 UBUNTU – THE PARADIGM FOR MANAGING ADULT LEARNING IN AGRICULTURAL TRAINING CENT
CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.2 SERVICE LEARNING
3.3 TRAINING OF ADULT LEARNERS
3.4 AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
3.6 EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF TRAINING
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH AND DESIGN METHODOLOGY
4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
4.4 RESEARCH EXECUTION
4.5 ANALYSES CONDUCTED
4.6 TIME SCALE
4.7 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
4.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER 5 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS
5.2 DATA PREPARATION
5.3 DATA PRESENTATION
5.4 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
6.2 SUMMARY OF THE MAIN FINDINGS
6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
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