Urban growth and urbanisation in India
India has lately experienced industrialisation, motorisation and urbanisation at once. This driven by globalisation and increasing international economic cooperation which have made the cities flourish. After China, India has the second largest urban system in the world. It is the largest democracy in the world and is one of the fastest growing countries. This makes the Indian cities exposed to aggressive urbanisation which is both a benefit and difficulty for the country19.
According to the McKinsey Global Institute Report, India’s urban population will increase to 590 million by 2030 which is nearly double the size of the total population in the United States. By the same year, India will also have 68 cities with more than 1 million people in each, 13 cities with more than 4 million and 6 megacities with a population that exceed 10 million inhabitants20.
Furthermore, the cities are the drivers of the growth of the Indian economy which is predicted to be five times larger in 2030. This generates an increase in labour force with 270 million people, with 70% coming from jobs in the urban areas.
The report also states that the following is needed for India to meet the future requirements of this urban growth;
US 1.2$ trillion in capital investment
2.5 billion square meters of roads to be paved
700-900 million square meters of commercial and residential space to be built
7,400 kilometres of subways and transportation to be constructed21
The US 1.2$ trillion in investments represents almost one third of India’s total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009. India must build a city the size of Chicago every year for the upcoming 20 years to be able to meet the demand of 700-900 million square meters of real estate development22.
Businesses and the government find it hard to create enough jobs to meet the demands of the population. Unemployment is therefore a problem which leads to people applying for government-funds and benefits. In turn, the government loses money which usually leads to reduction of energy, health care, education and public transport. Waste management and security are areas that get less prioritised or even forgotten. One result of these issues is poverty which slows down the economic growth23.
A consequence of urbanisation and urban growth is the spreading of the existing cities in terms of area. This is called urban sprawl. Urban sprawl can take different shapes and may include residential developments of high-income citizens that seek bigger sites for housing. It may also take the form of business activities such as manufacturing and offices as well as less planned downtown areas and houses popping up across formerly rural landscape, these are called ‘pop up houses’24. Hyderabad is a typical example of the Indian cities that have experienced a massive urban sprawl. It has been measured that during the same time the population doubled, the area of the city increased from 174 square kilometres to 625 square kilometres25. This is illustrated in image 3.
1.2 AIM, OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
2 Theoretical background
2.1 THE NEED OF URBAN SUSTAINABILITY
3 Methods and implementations .
3.1 LITERARY STUDY AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
3.2 CASE STUDY –WSP INDIA CONSULTANTS LTD.
4.1 WHAT DOES URBAN SUSTAINABILITY MEAN IN AN INDIAN CONTEXT COMPARED TO THE COMMON ONE?
4.2 WHAT STRATEGIES ARE IMPLEMENTED IN THE ATTEMPTS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE URBAN SUCCESS IN INDIA?
4.3 WHAT MAIN CHALLENGES STILL EXIST TO OVERCOME IN ORDER TO REACH URBAN SUSTAINABILITY IN INDIA?
5.1 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.2 DISCUSSION OF METHODS
6 Conclusions and recommendations
8 Search terms
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
APPROACHING URBAN SUSTAINABILITY – A MINOR FIELD STUDY IN INDIA