Current context of clinical supervision in New Zealand
In New Zealand, clinical supervision is recommended as one method of ensuring public safety, ongoing professional development and safe practice (Ministry of Health, 2000). Clinical supervision is seen as a quality improvement strategy which improves outcomes for service users and reduces stress for staff. Additionally practitioners are required to demonstrate that they are competent to practice.
There have been efforts to encourage the use of clinical supervision by various stakeholders. The government, nursing organisations and regulatory bodies support the need for clinical supervision for nurses. The Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act (2003) (HPCAA) requires practitioners to protect the health and safety of the public by providing for mechanisms to ensure that nurses are competent and fit to practice and are able to obtain annual practising certificates. In response to the HPCAA requirements, the Nursing Council of New Zealand [NCNZ] as the regulatory authority for nurses recommends that nurses engage in clinical supervision as one way of maintaining competence and fitness to practice (Nursing Council of New Zealand, 2007). Clinical supervision, it is argued, helps to develop practitioner`s skills.
New Zealand Nurses Organization [NZNO] (2005), in their position statement on clinical supervision state that “Professional and clinical supervision is recognised as a critical component of nursing and midwifery practice. The NZNO believes that professional and clinical supervision should be available for all nurses and midwives and supports initiatives to achieve this” (p.1). Clinical supervision is also recommended in the Standards of Practice for Mental Health Nursing in New Zealand (Te Ao Maramatanga: New Zealand College of Mental Health Nursing, 2004). This document informs and provides guidance around the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for competence, professional development and public accountability of mental health nurses. Standard Five makes reference to the need for mental health nurses to maintain and enhance their own competency and to support the professional development of colleagues. It recommends that nurses reflect on their practice by engaging in peer reviews and supervision.
The Ministry of Health (2006) in its discussion framework document Mental Health Nursing and its Future acknowledges the implementation of clinical supervision as a professional development as well a staff retention strategy. The report concludes that there is variability and inconsistency in the ways clinical supervision is provided in District Health Boards (DHB) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO). It also recommends appropriate training of supervisors to meet the needs of colleagues requiring clinical supervision. By examining the experience of providing supervision, this thesis aims to contribute to an understanding of personal, organisational and policy factors that support or constrain this role. In doing so, it will help to bridge the gap between aspirations of policy-makers and professional bodies and the experience of many nurses who currently miss out on the benefits of regular clinical supervision.
The Treaty of Waitangi
The Treaty‟s principles of partnership, protection and participation are significant in improving the health status of Maori. The principles also need to be addressed in the implementation of clinical supervision. The Treaty of Waitangi is the founding document for relationships between Maori and the Crown in Aotearoa/ New Zealand (Ministry of Health, 2002a). The Treaty was signed in 1840 to address the effects of colonisation. Colonisation resulted in the alienation of Maori land, the imposition of systems based on English law and practices that undermined Maori law, religion, education, health language and culture. The Crown sought to enable peaceful negotiations for settlement of Maori with immigrants and the Treaty recognised the prior occupation by Maori in New Zealand.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.2 Historical perspectives of clinical supervision
1.3 Personal statement .
1.4 Aim of the study
1.5 Justification for the study
1.6 Structure of the thesis
CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND TO CLINICAL SUPERVISION
2.2 Current context of clinical supervision in New Zealand
2.3 Defining clinical supervision
2.4 The purpose of clinical supervision
2.5 Effectiveness of clinical supervision
2.6 Resources for supporting clinical supervision
2.7 Theories and models of supervision
CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW
3.2 Literature search strategy
3.3 Literature on clinical supervisors
3.4 Barriers to clinical supervision
3.5 Clinical supervision in New Zealand
3.6 The gap in literature
CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.3 Qualitative research design
4.4 Qualitative descriptive research
4.5 Sampling in qualitative research
4.6 Validity, trustworthiness and rigour in qualitative research
4.7 Criteria for judging qualitative research
4.8 Limitations of qualitative descriptive design
4.9 Research methods
CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS
CHAPTER SIX: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
An exploration of the experiences of mental health and addictions nurses providing clinical supervision in a New Zealand District Health Board