THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN MANAGING CONFLICT

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CHAPTER TWO THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN MANAGING CONFLICT

INTRODUCTION

As was evident from the discussions in Chapter 1, there are conflicting situations experienced by teachers and their supervisors in the education system of Botswana.It is relevant that educational leaders should attain appropriate leadership competencies to enable them to manage conflict for the purpose of creating a peaceful learning environment. This chapter reviews relevant literature related to the concept of leadership. The chapter addresses the research aim that investigates the need of innovative leadership in this modern day and age. The literature review will concentrate on the following sub-headings: the contextual framework (2.2),leadership defined (2.2.1), the five levels of leadership (2.2.2), what innovative leadership is (2.2.3), the role of educational leaders in supporting school principals in education (2.3), principalship in schools (2.3.1), educational leadership models (2.4), leadership theories (2.5), leadership styles (2.6), and aspects of communication (2.7). The researcher considers the mentioned sub-headings as relevant to the study because the study is centered on educational leaders in general, and school principals, in particular. The discussions will bring to the fore why innovative leadership is of great importance. Furthermore, being an innovative leader and possessing relevant communication skills are inseparable competencies. This goes without saying that the component of communication plays a significant role in leadership. The section that follows will briefly give an outline of the contextual framework.

THE CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK

The contextual framework on which this study is centered will be focused on the management of conflict at the selected senior secondary schools. Babbie and Mouton (2001:272) indicate that, “If one understands events against the background of the whole context and how such a context confers meaning to the events concerned, that one can truly claim to ‘understand’ the events.”First, the concept of leadership with special emphasis on innovative leadership in relation to; how school principals could apply it to manage conflict in their schools will be discussed. Under this, the concept of communication will be given attention as well. Secondly, conflict as experienced by the participants at the selected senior secondary schools will be discussed. The discussions of the new Public Service Act No: 30 of 2008 and various leadership conditions have been dealt with in Chapter 1
(cf. 1.2). Based on the outlined contextual framework, the leadership theories and conflict management models will be discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 of this study. The transformational leadership theory and other theories on leadership will be debated. The study is situated on the transformational leadership theory (cf. 2.5.3).In the next section, the concept of leadership will be defined.

Leadership defined

The concept of leadership dates back to antiquity (Arnott & Holmgren-Hoeller, 2010:2). Leadership is so important that some scholars see it as the sole factor in success (Light, 1998:19). Hoy and Miskel (2005: 374) confirm that leaders are important because they serve as anchors, provide guidance in times of change and are responsible for the effectiveness of organisations. Betts (2000:12) considers “good” leaders as members of the group that are outstanding, who have the ability to get along easily with people, who ascertain that the followers understand the purpose of initiating change in their workplaces. These leaders also welcome changes, new ideas from their followers and demonstrate great concern for every member of their groups. Researchers have cited different definitions of the term, leadership. For instance, Ricketts (2003:3) defines leadership as the way a particular leader conducts himself or herself when he or she manages the activities of a group for the purpose of attaining a specific goal. A definition by Cherrington (1994:618) states that ‘leadership’ is the on-going influence a leader possesses that goes beyond the mere observance of the given directives. This definition implies that this kind of a leader has the ability to enthuse his or her followers to carry out their duties with minimal
supervision. Working in such an environment can be fulfilling.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DEDICATION
DECLARATION
ABSTRACT 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE ORIENTATION TO THE RESEARCH PROBLEM, RESEARCH AIMS, METHODS AND STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS
1.1 INTRODUCTION 
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH 
1.2.1 The dilemmas of modern education and leadership
1.2.2 The phenomenon of conflict in Botswana education
1.2.2.1 The consequences of conflict: the 2011 public strike
1.2.2.2 Conflict arising from the “no work, no pay” principle
1.2.2.3 Conflict arising from the invigilation and marking of examinations
1.2.2.4 Conflict arising due to extra-curricular activities
1.2.2.5 Miscellaneous issues creating conflict due to leadership conditions
1.2.2.6 Conflict arising from the new working hours
1.2.2.7 Change of the employing entity
1.2.2.8 Teachers’ leave arrangements
1.2.2.9 Teaching as an essential service
1.2.2.10 Introduction of overtime in teaching
1.2.2.11 Conflict arising from the clocking system
1.2.3 Definition of terms.
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT 
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.5 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS 
1.5.1 Research design
1.5.1.1 Research paradigm
1.5.1.2 Research approach
1.5.1.3 Research strategy
1.5.2 Research Methods
1.5.2.1 The selection of the participants
1.5.2.2 Data collection
1.5.2.3 Data analysis
1.5.2.4 Trustworthiness
1.6 CHAPTER DIVISION
1.7 SUMMARY 
THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN MANAGING CONFLICT 
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 THE CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK 
2.2.1 Leadership defined
2.2.2 Five levels of leadership
2.2.3 What innovative leadership is
2.2.3.1 Definition of the term innovation
2.2.3.3 The roles of innovative leadership in creating conducive organisational conditions
2.3 THE ROLE OF SUPERVISORS IN SUPPORTING SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN EDUCATION 
2.3.1 Principal-ship in schools
2.2.3.2. Innovation and leadership
2.3.1.1 Wisdom Intelligence
2.3.1.2 Character Intelligence
2.3.1.3 Social Intelligence
2.3.1.4 Spiritual Intelligence
2.3.2 Expectations for school principals
2.4 EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODELS
2.4.1 The school-based leadership model
2.4.2 The transformational leadership model
2.4.3 The cultural leadership model
2.4.4 The opportunist leadership model
2.4.5 The ethical dialectician model
2.5 LEADERSHIP THEORIES
2.5.1 The inclusive leadership theory
2.5.2 The participatory leadership theory
2.5.3. The transformational leadership (also known as relational)
2.5.4 The path-goal theory
2.6 LEADERSHIP STYLES
2.6.1. The hierarchical leadership style
2.6.2. The facilitative leadership style
2.6.3. The transformational Leadership Style
2.7 ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION
2.7.1 Effective communication techniques
2.7.2 The importance of communication
2.7.3 Barriers to communication
2.7.4 Overcoming communication challenges in today’s workplace
2.8 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER THREE 
THE PHENOMENON OF CONFLICT IN EDUCATION AND THE STRATEGIES THAT EDUCATIONAL MANAGERS CAN EMPLOY TO MANAGE CONFLICT 
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 CONFLICT AND ITS RELATED CONCEPTS IN EDUCATION
3.2.1 Conflict defined
3.2.2 The conflict phenomenon
3.2.2.1 Types of conflicts
3.2.2.2 Causes of conflict
3.2.2.3 Conflict and its theories
3.3 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT DEFINED
3.3.1 Conflict management and leadership success
3.3.2 Models of conflict management
3.3.2.1 Rahim’s meta-model management approaches to conflict
3.3.2.2 The harmony model of conflict management
3.3.2.3 The confrontational model of conflict management
3.3.2.4 The regulative model of conflict management
3.3.3 Conflict management strategies
3.3.4 Steps to managing conflict
3.4 CONFLICT RESOLUTION 
3.5 CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION
3.5.1 Conflict transformation defined
3.5.2 Types of conflict transformation
3.5.3 Comparisons between conflict transformation, conflict resolution and conflict management
3.6 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER FOUR 
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE THE PERCEPTIONS OF PARTICIPANTS WITH REGARD TO CONFLICT IN THE BOTSWANA EDUCATION SYSTEM AND HOW IT COULD BE MANAGED THROUGH INNOVATIVE LEADERSHIP
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 RATIONALE FOR EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
4.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
4.3.1 Research paradigm
4.3.2 Research approach
4.3.3 Research strategies
4.3.3.1 Participatory action research
4.3.3.2 Appreciative Inquiry
4.3.3.3 Innovation action research
4.3.3.4 Interpretive research strategy
4.4 RESEARCH METHODS
4.4.1 Study population
4.4.1.1 Sample subjects
4.4.1.2 Sampling techniques
4.4.1.3 Sample size
4.4.2 Data collection
4.4.2.1 Documentary records
4.4.2.2 Interviews
4.4.2.3 Observations
4.4.3 Data analysis
4.4.4 Measures for trustworthiness
4.4.5 Ethical measures
4.5 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER FIVE
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS REGARDING PARTICIPANTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF CONFLICT IN THE BOTSWANA EDUCATION SYSTEM 
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 RESEARCH PROCESS 
5.3 DATA ANALYSIS
5.3.1 Biographical data
5.3.2 Interview schedules
5.3.3 Analysis of qualitative data
5.3.3.1 Interviews
5.3.3.2 Observations
5.3.3.3 Documentary analysis
5.4 DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
5.4.1 Theme 1: The demands of being a leader at a senior secondary school
5.4.2 Theme 2: Conflict situations
5.4.3 Theme 3: Innovative leadership
5.4.4 Theme 4: Communication patterns
5.4.4.1 The Rapid Assessment Initiative
5.4.4.2 Non-verbal communication styles of the participants
5.4.5 Theme 5: The Public Service Act (PSA) and the teaching profession
5.4.5.1 The Public Service Act No. 30 of 2008 and overtime
5.4.5.2 The Public Service Act and the Imprest Schema
5.4.5.3 The Public Service Act and the teachers’ annual leave
5.4.5.4 The Public Service Act No. 8 of 30 and the eight-hour workday
5.4.5.5 The Public Service Act No. 8 of 30 and the clocking system
5.4.5.6 The Public Service Act No. 8 of 30 and the Extra-curricular activities
5.4.6 Theme 6: The school work environment
5.4.6.1 Conflict and the school environment
5.4.6.2 The school vision and the school environment
5.4.7 The Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoESD) and BOSETU offices
5.4.7.1 Office 1
5.4.7.2 Office 2
5.4.7.3 Office 3
5.4.7.4 Office 4
5.4.7.5 Office 5
5.4.7.6 Office 6
5.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 INTRODUCTION 
6.2 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS 
6.2.1 Key scholarly review findings
6.2.2 Key empirical findings
6.2.2.1 Manifestations of conflicts in the education system
6.2.2.2 Communication between the Ministry, school managers and teachers at the schools
6.2.2.3 Necessity of trained managers
6.2.2.4 Building trust
6.2.2.5 Teachers’ dissatisfaction with the employer
6.2.2.6 Cleanliness of the selected schools
6.2.2.7 Delayed responses
6.2.2.8 Education Policy Analysts
6.2.2.9 The introduction of the Public Service Act
6.2.2.10 The 2011 National Strike
6.2.2.11 Leadership style of school principals and the educational managers
6.2.2.12 Teachers’ wages
6.3 RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS 
6.3.1 Research Question 1
6.3.2.1 Leadership strategies
6.3.2.2 Leaders’ interactions with teachers
6.3.2.3 Role modeling for excellence
6.3.2.4 Listening skills
6.3.2.5 A positive mindset
6.3.2 Research Question 2
6.3.3 Research Question 3
6.3.1.1 The nature of conflict at senior secondary schools
6.3.1.2 The causes and extent of conflict at senior secondary schools
6.3.4 Research Question 4
6.4 The School R.E.V.A.M.P model
6.5 RECOMMENDATIONS 

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