The role of national culture on safety performance

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter focuses on existing literature that covers key aspects governing the defined problem. This will be conducted from a fairly elevated level and will then gradually transition to the problem in the local context. The intention is to provide a broad overview on the key concepts and demonstrate the interface of these concepts with safety and the impact on safety culture from a South African perspective.This literature study will initially attempt to explain culture and its application in the organisational context. This will then be followed by a description of safety culture and climate in the context of organisational culture. Key models and theories will be considered in the existing body of knowledge. Safety culture change and behaviour change programmes will also be explored. Different safety management models are also discussed. Psychological theories and behaviour change models are also considered. Organisational change and behavioural change management as a key discipline in embedding safety culture change is discussed followed by critical success factors, the role of national culture, leadership and commitment and measurement tools. The intention of the literature review is to provide a high-level understanding of the key concepts and does not attempt to cover every subject in explicit detail unless required.

Culture

Culture is often related to some kind of sharedness: symbolic meaning systems, ways of thinking, meanings and identities, common ways, etc. Mind and culture is often described as the “necessity for human nature”. Geertz (1973) described culture as the“fabric of meaning in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action”. Culture is a process, it is dynamic and evolving not a “noun” i.e. a static perspective. (Tharaldsen and Haukelid, 2009) In this very early stage one can already start to conceptualize that in the context of safety, safety culture cannot be established instantaneously or over a short-time period.

Organisational culture

Zhou, Fang & Wang (2008) refer to Schein‟s (1992) definition where organisation culture is referred to as a “pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learns as it solves its problem of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.” Glendon and Stanton (2000) reference, that the prime function of an organisation‟s culture, as described by Graves (1986) and Williams, et al. (1989), is to “contribute to an organisation‟s success”. An organisational culture, irrespective of how it‟s defined, is directly linked to the success or the failure of that organisation.Helmreich and Merritt (1998) define organisational culture as “a complex framework of national, organisational, and professional attitudes and values within which groups and individuals function”. Reason (2000) expanded stating that part of this culture in hazardous industries relates to safety and is defined as “the ability of individuals or organisations to deal with risks and hazards so as to avoid damage or losses and yet still achieve their goals”. (Parker, Lawrie & Hudson, 2006) In his paper „towards a model of safety culture‟, Cooper (2000) makes reference to William et.al. (1989), where the notion that organisational culture reflects shared values,beliefs, attitudes, etc. are challenged, as they argue that not all members in an organisation respond in the same way to any given situation. As an example one department may put safety before production while another may put production before safety. Glendon and Stanton (2000) in their paper „Perspective on safety culture‟ refer to two broad contrasting perspectives to organisational culture. The functionalist approach that assumes organisational culture exists as an ideal to which organisations should aspire to and that it can be manipulated (by management) to serve the organisations needs while the interpretive approach assumes that organisation culture is a complex interaction of social groups within an organisation where it is created and owned by all rather than one particular grouping. Schein‟s (1990) developmental approach to organisational culture is aligned to the interpretive perspective. The main feature of organisational culture is captured in table 1. According to Glendon and Stanton (2000) the most accessible levels refers to behaviours and norms. The intermediate levels are attitudes and perceptions which are not directly observable as in the most accessible levels and therefore are acquired through questioning or are inferred. The deepest levels are the core values which required more in-depth analysis.

Organisational climate

The terms climate and culture have often been used interchangeable resulting in confusion. While there is a relationship and some overlap, organisational climate refers to “the perceived quality of an organisation‟s internal environment”. Furnham and Grunter (1993) also describe it as an “index of organisational health but not a causative factor in it”. (Glendon and Stanton, 2000) Figure 2 is a simple illustration of an eight dimensional scale of an organisations climate. Safety and risk would typically be included in a safety climate scale.

ABSTRACT 
LIST OF FIGURES 
LIST OF TABLES 
LIST OF APPENDICES 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED 
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 
1.2 Statement of the problem 
1.3 Research objectives 
1.4 Motivation and importance of the study 
1.5 Contribution of the study in relation to the existing body of knowledge 
1.6 Study area 
1.7 Research methodology 
1.8 Assumptions 
1.9 Limitations of the study 
1.10 Summary 
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 
2.1 Culture
2.2 Organisational culture 
2.3 Organisational climate 
2.4 Safety Culture 
2.5 Safety Climate 
2.6 Safety culture change and safety behaviour change 
2.6.1 Safety culture change
2.6.2 Behavioural change
2.6.2.1 What is behavioural based safety (BBS)?
2.6.2.2 What does a BBS programme include?
2.6.2.3 BBS success factors?
2.7 The integrative approach
2.8 Psychological concepts that contribute to organisational safety performance 
2.8.1 Perceived organisational support
2.8.2 Theory of social exchange
2.8.3 Leader member exchange theory (LMX)
2.8.4 Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB)
2.8.5 Fairness
2.8.6 Empowerment
2.8.7 Trust
2.8.8 Critical reflection
2.8.9 Social interaction and communication
2.9 Organisational change 
2.9.1 Lewin‟s three-step change model
2.9.2 Other fundamental theories and models in behavioural change
Theory of reasoned action
Planned behaviour theory
Transtheoretical model
The spiral model for stages of behavioural change
2.9.3 The cycle of change
2.9.4 Change fatigue
2.10 The role of national culture on safety performance 
2.11 Measuring safety culture 
2.12 Critical success factors in culture and behavioural based safety programmes 
2.13 Positive safety culture 
2.14 Organisational indicators of safety culture 
2.15 Agents of organisational change
2.16 Summary
CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 
3.1 Background 
3.2 Issues with implementation in a multinational
3.3 Motivation 
3.4 Model for creating lasting change 
3.5 Support of senior leadership 
3.6 The tools 
3.7 Programme design criteria 
3.8 Implementation strategy 
3.9 The tactics
3.10 Multinational in developing countries
3.11 Safety culture in the South African context 
3.11.1 Background
3.11.2 Political and social environment
3.11.3 Economic environment
3.11.4 South African HSE legislative framework
3.11.5 Safety culture in South Africa
3.11.5.1 Road transport fatalities as a measure of safety culture
3.11.5.2 Safety culture in the petroleum sector in South Africa
3.12 Summary 
CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION 
4.1 Introduction 
4.2 Rationale
4.3 Qualitative design methodology 
4.4 Practical steps in research design and data collection 
4.5 The sample size 
4.6 The semi-structured interview questionnaire 
4.7 Reliability and validity of data 
4.8 Summary 
CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 
5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Analysis of results 
5.2.1 Heart and Minds pre and post implementation review
5.2.2 In-depth interviews
5.3 Learning’s from Shell Global Businesses on safety culture 
5.4 Learning’s from Woolworth’s & Rainbow Chickens in South Africa 
5.5 Discussion 
5.6 Summary 
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 
6.1 Introduction 
6.2 Limitations of the study 
6.3 Conclusions 
6.4 Recommendations 
REFERENCES 
APPEN DICES 
GLOSSARY OF TERMS

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THE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR THE PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF A SAFETY CULTURE IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVE IN SOUTH AFRICA

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