THE WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION

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Robben Island:

For almost 400 years, Robben Island, located 12 kilometres from Cape Town, was a place of banishment, exile, isolation and imprisonment. Between the 17th and 20th centuries, Robben Island was first used as a prison, later as a hospital for socially unacceptable groups and also a military base. Its buildings, particularly those of the late 20th century such as the maximum-security prison for political prisoners, witness the triumph of the human spirit, of democracy and freedom over oppression and racism. Robben Island has in many respects come to symbolise the triumph of the human spirit over enormous hardship and adversity. The justification for its inscription in 1999 was based on criteria iii and vi (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 1998c).

Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs

also known as The Cradle of Humankind: The Fossil Hominid Sites known as the Cradle of Humankind (inscribed in 1999 based on criteria iii and vi), covers 47 000 hectares of mostly privately owned land and has produced an abundance of scientific information on the evolution of the human being over the past 3.5 million years, his way of life, and the animals with which he lived and on which he fed. The Sterkfontein area contains an exceptionally large and scientifically significant group of sites that throw light on the earliest ancestors of humankind (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 1998a).

Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape:

The Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape was inscribed in 2007 on the basis of cultural criteria iv and v as the eighth World Heritage Site in South Africa. It is a remarkable mountainous desert in the northwest of South Africa and is owned and managed by the Nama community, descendants of the Khoi-Khoi people. The Richtersveld is a land of extreme temperatures characterised by a harsh, dry landscape. The endangered Karoo vegetation, characterised by succulents, is protected by the seasonal migratory behaviour of the Nama, who move between stock-posts with traditional demountable mat-roofed houses called |haru oms – a practice which has endured for about 2000 years (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2006a). As illustrated with the examples above, World Heritage sites exist within a dynamic environment and must attract and satisfy the needs of visitors, investors, residents, as well as improve and protect the environment. The effects of tourism on a destination can be both positive and negative. The positive aspects include the generation of income and employment and a negative aspect is the risk of damage to the destination (Laws, 1995:1-3). Tourist destinations such as World Heritage sites must be wisely managed if they are to remain sustainable attractions. In terms of tourism destinations, sustainability is defined as responsible tourism underpinned by a properly thought out management strategy. It also relies on collaboration between the public and private sector in order to prevent irreparable damage as well as to protect, enhance and improve the tourist destination (Holloway, 2006:119).

The Status of Management Plans in the Various Regions

Many of the Arab World Heritage properties have management plans described as being in the process of being prepared or updated. Management plans were operational in only 15% of cases. Conservation Services and property managers often lack communication policies and capacities with regard to the links with the different stakeholders. This is a reason for concern as the governments and other local institutions play a very important role in the management of most of the Arab World Heritage properties by often being directly involved in the conservation activities. The periodic report indicated that consultation of the local population for the elaboration of management plans did not appear to be common practice. In the past the community was only rarely involved in conservation and presentation actions, notably as regards historic cities (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2004b). The purpose of monitoring World Heritage sites is to measure to what extent the implementation of the management plan is successful and to monitor the physical condition and state of conservation of the site. The World Heritage Committee’s desire for a more systematic approach, has led to specific systematic efforts in a number of European countries, such as Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. A number of State Parties, notably in Central and South-Eastern Europe are developing or have begun systematic monitoring exercises. Concerning urban heritage, a systematic review process has been carried out by United Nations Development Programme in the Mediterranean sub-region (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2007c).

The Use of Information Technology

Although new information technologies may not be considered indispensable tools in the management and monitoring of World Heritage properties, they nonetheless contribute to creating a multiplier effect at the site level by broadening the possibilities of site managers, and new technologies greatly facilitate the work of professionals as they pay more attention to the conservation of the World Heritage properties. Great disparities exist, not only between Asian and Pacific State Parties, but also between cultural and natural sites in their access to and use of new technologies. Access to computers and the Internet does not necessarily induce the use of advanced electronic recording, as well as documentation and information management systems. In the Asian region, Indonesia has taken the lead in digitalising archival information and important documents securing the institutional memory of a site and assisting site managers in analysing previous trends in conservation and management of the site. Development of databases for management and monitoring purposes should also be encouraged. Conscious of their own limitations, the Asian State Parties of the region have nevertheless expressed in unambiguous terms their growing interest for the potential of new information technologies applied to heritage identification, conservation, management and promotion such as on-site access to the Internet, multimedia stations and interactive touch-screens. New technologies contribute to creating a multiplier effect at the site level by broadening the possibilities of site managers, especially where sub-regional similarities could be dealt with together rather than case-by-case (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2004c).

Cognisance of Threats and Risks

The World Heritage Convention seeks to protect natural and cultural properties against the increasing threat of damage in a rapidly developing world. The Convention emphasizes that heritage is not a renewable asset and that it is irreplaceable. The ability to estimate the seriousness and urgency of such risks is at the heart of preventive observation. Risks can be direct or indirect and can include degradation as a result of urbanisation, natural resource exploitation, population growth, pollution, theft and vandalism, or damage through water, chemicals, pests, and plants.

Overview of the Field of Organizational Behaviour

According to Furnham (2004:426), organizations are human creations of entities in which interacting and interdependent individuals work within a structure to achieve a common goal. Organizations come in many forms and their goals are manifold and may not always be shared implicitly or explicitly by all members of the organization. OB is optimally studied by adopting a systems approach and interpreting the peopleorganization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization and whole social system. From the definition above, it is clear that OB encompasses themes such as human behaviour, leadership, teams and change. OB has as its purpose the achievement of individual, organizational and social objectives by building better relationships. A comprehensive knowledge of OB will better prepare individuals to understand, influence, control and manage organizational dynamics and outcomes (Greenberg & Baron, 1997:4-6; Furnham, 2004:424). The strategic approach to OB is based on the premise that harnessing and managing an organization’s main resource namely its people (management, employees and stakeholders) effectively in order to implement the organization’s strategy, drives competitive advantage and sustained success (Hitt et al., 2006:5). Thus, to sustain the effective management of organizations such as World Heritage Sites it is necessary to have a strategic OB framework in place.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • 1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 BACKGROUND
      • 1.1.1 World Heritage
      • 1.1.2 Organizational Behaviour
    • 1.2 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
      • 1.2.1 The Thesis Statement
      • 1.2.2 Research Questions
      • 1.2.3 Demarcation of the Study
      • 1.2.4 Assumptions
    • 1.3 THE RESEARCH PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES
    • 1.4 THE NEED FOR A STRATEGIC ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
    • FRAMEWORK FOR SOUTH AFRICAN WORLD HERITAGE SITES
    • 1.5 CONCLUSION
  • 2 REVIEW OF WORLD HERITAGE
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 THE WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION
      • 2.2.1 Benefits of Ratification of the World Heritage Convention
      • 2.2.2 Inscription of World Heritage Sites
      • 2.2.3 Monitoring and Reporting
    • 2.2.4 Relevant Institutional Parties
    • 2.3 WORLD HERITAGE IN SOUTH AFRICA
      • 2.3.1 The iSimangaliso Wetland Park
    • 2.3.1.1 Issues Affecting the Management and Functioning of iSimangaliso
      • 2.3.2 The Cradle of Humankind – Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein,
    • Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Environs
    • 2.3.2.1 Issues Affecting the Management and Functioning of the Cradle
    • 2.4 FACTORS INFLUENCING WORLD HERITAGE SITES
      • 2.4.1 Challenges facing World Heritage sites
    • 2.4.1.1 Tourism
    • 2.4.1.2 Environmental Issues
    • 2.4.1.3 Policy and Legislation
    • 2.4.1.4 Management and Organization
    • 2.4.1.5 Sustainability
    • 2.4.1.6 Stakeholder Relationships
    • 2.5 CONCLUSION
  • 3 INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICES REVIEW
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 3.2 CRITICAL ISSUES IN THE INVESTIGATION OF BEST PRACTICES
      • 3.2.1 Implications of World Heritage Listing
      • 3.2.2 Tourism at World Heritage Sites
      • 3.2.3 Lack of International Best Practices
    • 3.3 BEST PRACTICES MANAGEMENT
    • 3.3.1 A Review of Current Experience and Key Best Practices
    • 3.3.1.1 Raising Awareness
    • 3.3.1.2 Increasing Protection
    • 3.3.1.3 Enhancing Funding
    • 3.3.1.4 Improving Management
    • 3.3.1.5 Harnessing Tourism
    • 3.3.2 Additional Best Practices
    • 3.3.2.1 Scientific and Technical Studies and Research
    • 3.3.2.2 Training and Education
    • 3.3.2.3 Participation of Local Communities
    • 3.3.2.4 Adequate Staff Capacity
    • 3.3.2.5 The Use of Information Technology
    • 3.3.2.6 Identification of World Heritage Values
    • 3.3.2.7 Cognisance of Threats and Risks
    • 3.3.2.8 Cooperation for World Heritage
    • 3.4 CONCLUSION
  • 4 REVIEW OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.1.1 Organizational Behaviour Defined
    • 4.1.2 Overview of the Field of Organizational Behaviour
    • 4.1.3 Organizational Behaviour as Independent Field of Study
    • 4.1.4 Organizational Behaviour Objectives
    • 4.1.5 Organizational Behaviour Points of View
    • 4.2 A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
    • 4.2.1 Organizations as Open Systems
    • 4.2.2 Elements of an Open System Organization
    • 4.3 STRATEGIC ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
    • 4.3.1 Organizational Design and Structure
    • 4.3.2 Organizational Dynamics
    • 4.3.2.1 Leadership and Management
    • 4.3.2.2 Culture
    • 4.3.2.3 Communication
    • 4.3.3 Strategic Stakeholder Relationships
    • 4.4 CRITICISM OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH
    • 4.4 CONCLUSION
  • 5 RATIONALE FOR RESEARCH APPROACH
    • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
      • 5.1.1 Research Approach
      • 5.1.2 Research Objectives and Stages of Research to be Deployed
      • 5.1.3 Research Descriptors
    • 5.2 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
      • 5.2.1 Ensuring Rigour
      • 5.2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research
    • 5.3 SAMPLING DESIGN
      • 5.3.1 Non-Probability Sampling
      • 5.3.2 Target Population and Sample
    • 5.4 DESIGNING THE RESEARCH METHOD PROTOCOL
      • 5.4.1 Data Collection
      • 5.4.1.1 In-depth Interviews
      • 5.4.1.2 Documentation and Archival Records
      • 5.4.1.3 Audit Trail
    • 5.4.2 Data Analysis
    • 5.4.3 Develop Conclusions and Recommendations
    • 5.5 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • 5.6 CONCLUSION
  • 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 6.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • 6.2.1 Research Population
    • 6.2.2 The Interview Process
    • 6.2.2.1 Pre-interview Preparations
    • 6.2.2.2 Conducting the Interviews
    • 6.2.2.3 Post-interview Actions
    • 6.2.3 Interpreting the Data
    • 6.2.4 The Quality of the Data
    • 6.3 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FINDINGS
    • 6.4 CONCLUSION
  • 7 PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
    • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 7.2 REPORTING AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
    • 7.3 TOWARDS A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK OF ORGANIZATIONAL
    • BEHAVIOUR
    • 7.3.1 Designing the Framework
    • 7.3.2 An Open System’s Approach
    • 7.4 THEMATIC DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      • 7.4.1 Understanding the Design and Structure of the Heritage Sites
      • 7.4.1.1 UNESCO, World Heritage Status, the Convention, Policies and Legislation
      • 7.4.1.2 The Structure of World Heritage Sites
      • 7.4.1.3 Parties and Partners
      • 7.4.1.4 Tourism Destination and Sustainability
    • 7.4.2 Understanding the Organizational Dynamics of the Heritage Sites
    • 7.4.2.1 The Management of the World Heritage Sites
    • 7.4.2.2 The Organizational Culture of the World Heritage Sites
    • 7.4.2.3 Communication at the World Heritage Sites
    • 7.4.2.4 The Strategic Stakeholder Relationships of the World Heritage Sites
    • 7.5 THE PROPOSED STRATEGIC ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
    • FRAMEWORK
    • 7.5.1 World Heritage Organizations as Open Systems
    • 7.5.2 The Strategic Organizational Behaviour Framework
    • 7.6 CONCLUSION
  • 8 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 8.2 FINDINGS AS RELATED TO THE OBJECTIVES
    • 8.2.1 The Organizational Level Elements Necessary for the Sustained Strategic
    • Organizational Behaviour of a World Heritage Site
    • 8.2.1.1 The Structure and Design of the World Heritage Sites are not Inclusive Of
    • all the Role-Players
    • 8.2.1.2 The Culture of the World Heritage Sites is Influenced by the Management,
    • which in turn Contributes to its Success as a Business
    • 8.2.1.3 Open Communication Contributes to Building of Relationships whereas a
    • Lack of Communication leads to Mistrust and Antagonism
    • 8.2.2 The Impact Of Organizational Behaviour on Sustained Destination
    • Management
    • 8.2.2.1 World Heritage Status Holds Significant Opportunity and Challenges in
    • Terms of Tourism
    • 8.2.3 The Strategic Approach Taken to the Development and Sustainability of a
    • World Heritage Site
    • 8.2.3.1 UNESCO Provides the Philosophy but does not have Governing Powers
    • 8.2.3.2 The Concept of World Heritage is still not Widely Understood
    • 8.2.3.3 The World Heritage Legislation Provides for Structure and Power of the
    • Sites
    • 8.2.4 Best Practices for Optimal Sustained Management of South African World
    • Heritage Sites
    • 8.2.4.1 Lack of Consistency exists with regard to Monitoring and Evaluating World
    • Heritage Sites
    • 8.2.4.2 General Best Practices are not Applied Uniformly
    • 8.2.4.3 The Participation of Local Communities
    • 8.2.4.4 Cooperation for World Heritage
    • 8.2.4.5 The Management of World Heritage Sites is Experienced as Dictatorial
    • rather than Participatory
    • 8.2.5 The Roles and Contributions of the World Heritage Sites’ Strategic
    • Stakeholders
    • 8.2.5.1 Many Different Parties are Involved in and Responsible for World Heritage
    • in South Africa
    • 8.2.5.2 Strategic Stakeholder Relationships Impact the Long-Term sustainability of
    • the World Heritage Sites
    • 8.2.6 The Strategic Organizational Behaviour Framework for South African World
    • Heritage Sites
    • 8.3 THE RELIABILITY OF THE STUDY
    • 8.4 THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
    • 8.5 THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
    • 8.6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    • 8.7 CONCLUSION
  • 9 LIST OF REFERENCES
    • APPENDIX A – Interview Schedule
    • APPENDIX B – Informed Consent Form

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A STRATEGIC ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FRAMEWORK TO SUSTAIN THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF WORLD HERITAGE SITES
A STRATEGIC ORGANIZATIONAL B
EHAVIOUR FRAMEWORK TO SUSTAIN THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF WORLD HERITAGE SITES

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