TYPES OF CHILDREN’S GAMES AND GAME SONGS 

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CHAPTER THREE DATA RECORDING AND INTERPRETATION

Introduction

In this chapter, the main emphasis will be on data collection and data interpretation. This research entails the collection of information to test new ideas and/or disapprove existing ones. The data collected will be used to classify the different types of games and game songs and to investigate the functions of games and game songs as performed by African children in general and amaNdebele children in particular, as confirmed by young adults when they reflecting on childhood experiences. As indicated in Chapter 1, data will be collected by making use of interviews, questionnaires, documents and observation. The fourteen questions used for both interviews and questionnaire are found at the end of this study as Appendix 1. Questions are in both isiNdebele and English

Data recording and data transcription

Data collected, especially from interviews, questionnaires and observation, need to be transcribed. As there are no standard criteria for transcribing data, the data was transcribed and kept in written form. Hardy and Bryman (2004:533) attest that qualitative data from field sources such as interviews are usually condensed into textual form.
Transcription of the interviews was done word for word from isiNdebele into English to avoid losing useful information. The researcher wrote down the responses of the informants during the interviews verbatim (LeCompte and Schensul, 2013). Some participants were recorded but those who were not willing to be recorded were not coerced to do so because ethically, each participant participated in the research project voluntarily. Hall and Hall (1996) 281) confirm that some participants may reject the use of data-gathering devices such as tape recorders. Interviews conducted in isiNdebele were later decoded into English. Detailed note taking was jotted down in isiNdebele and English because the researcher understands these languages well. The decoded versions were language edited later. Lastly, the researcher verified the edited material against the original material for accuracy

 Recording of the responses to interviews:

The 14 questions (in both isiNdebele and English) used for both interviews and the questionnaire are found at the end of this study as Appendix 1. Interviews were used by the researcher as a tool to collect data or information from the participants (Goodwin and Goodwin, 1996). Twelve participants were interviewed. Eight participants in Mpumalanga and four in Gauteng. Less interviews than anticipated were conducted, as the interviews took longer than it took to distribute the questionnaires to prospective participants. Only 50% of the answers were recorded because the answers were almost the same.
Seven girls and five boys were interviewed. The researcher interacted with them face-to-face and she could attest to their gender. After interviewing the 12 respondents, the researcher opted to rather use the questionnaires because the interviews were too time consuming – she had to travel to different areas as she was using the snowball or referral method. The researcher transcribed the responses to the interviews and arranged them according to the number of questions in the questionnaire. She transcribed them together with the responses to the questionnaires because her aim was to explore the functions of games and game songs from both the interviews and the questionnaires

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Questionnaires

The 14 questions used for both interviews and questionnaires are found at the end of this study as Appendix 1. Questions are in both isiNdebele and in English. A questionnaire is a written list of questions for respondents to complete themselves (Hall and Hall, 1996:98). Sommer and Sommer (1991:129) define a questionnaire as follows:
[A questionnaire] is a series of written questions on a topic about which the respondent’s opinions are sought. It is a frequently used tool in survey research – the systematic gathering of information about people’s beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviour.
A questionnaire is used to get the respondent’s opinions, views and attitudes on a certain topic. Akbayra (2000:1) supports the above statement when saying a questionnaire is no more than a list of questions to which answers are sought. Maree (2007:156) refers to this type of method of collecting data as the ‘group administration of questionnaires’. The researcher will use a questionnaire as a tool that will assist in gathering information on games and game songs from the respondents. The researcher will administer the questionnaires herself and the respondents will complete the questionnaires on their own. There are two types of questionnaires, namely mail and self-administered questionnaires. Mailed questionnaires are posted to the respondents. In this study, the researcher will administer the questionnaires (which she will have prepared in advance) herself, and will wait while the respondents complete them. Permission to conduct the research would have been long secured from the head of the Department of African Languages at the University of Johannesburg in Siyabuswa, where isiNdebele is offered.
The 14 questions used for both interviews and the questionnaire are found at the end of this study as Appendix 1.
There are advantages and disadvantages to this method

Advantages

The method is easy to apply and relatively economical as there is minimal travelling. Many respondents are able to complete a questionnaire in a short space of time.
The response rate is ideal.
The administrator or researcher is able to check questionnaires for accuracy. The researcher can intervene on the spot with certain issues that are not clear

Disadvantages

The cost could be high when using standardized tests.
When different administrators are involved in administering the tests, this could lead to different responses and the conditions under which the tests are administered cannot be controlled by the researcher.
The researcher will not be in a position to make sure that respondents answer all the questions because in some cases, she would not be meeting them face-to-face.
The researcher will have full control of the situation and conditions as she uses this method to collect data from the respondents herself, i.e. not delegate other administrators to do so. The researcher will also intercede immediately with certain issues that are not clear and ensure that all questionnaires distributed are collected from the participants.
(a) Recording of the questionnaires
Fifty-six participants completed the questionnaire. The researcher sampled and recorded only 27% of the responses because the answers were nearly the same and she wanted to save space. Hereunder are the responses of the 56 respondents who answered the questionnaire in isiNdebele and code switched in some instances.
(b) The interpretation of both the interview and the questionnaire responses
The researcher used the same or fixed questions for the interviews and for the questionnaire because she wanted to get the same information on the subject of games and game songs.
Question 1
revealed that 36, 5% of the respondents enjoyed playing umabhacelana (hide and seek) because it has the highest percentage; followed by iingedo (the pebble game) and mathini (the tin game) with 30%. Both sexes participate in the hide and seek game. 30% of the respondents are girls who enjoy playing the pebble game and the tin games. 13% of the respondents are boys who liked playing ama-ali (marbles) and iinkoloyi (with cars made of wires) while 16, 5% of them played (irobho/ukuzwana amandla) the tug of war.
17, 5% of the respondents are girls who enjoyed playing ukuphekaphekisa (the house play) as well as (ukucocisa) the narrative game. The imbalances in the percentages may indicate that more girls participated in this research study than boys did

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Introduction and background information to the study
1.2 Research problem statement
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Aim and objectives of the study
1.5 Justification
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Definitions of terms
1.8 Research design
1.9. Ethical processes
1.10 Organisation of chapters
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 
2.1. Introduction
2.2 Review of literatures
2. 3. Conclusion
CHAPTER THREE DATA RECORDING AND INTERPRETATION 
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Data recording and data transcription
3.3 Ethical issues
3.4 Conclusion
CHAPTER FOUR TYPES OF CHILDREN’S GAMES AND GAME SONGS 
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Data interpretation process
4.3. Coding schemes
4.4. Conclusion
CHAPTER FIVE FUNCTIONS OF GAMES AND GAME SONGS 
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Categories identified and selective coding
5.3. Selective coding and functions of games and game songs
5.4 Conclusion
CHAPTER SIX RESEARCH FINDINGS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Findings
6.3 Conclusion
CHAPTER SEVEN GENERAL CONCLUSION 
7.1 Introduction
7.2. Summary
7. 3. Recommendations
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