Access into the school s and ethical issues

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An overview of educat ional evaluat ion and programme implementat ion in Botswana 

Thi s sec t ion of the l i terature rev iew sur veys the l i terature on educat ional evaluat ion, programme evaluat ion and programme implementat ion in Botswana. Programme evaluat ion look s at the per formance and qual i t y of al l aspec ts of a t raining programme (Gi l t row 1987) . Thi s sec t ion of the l i terature looks at approaches and methodology as critical aspects of evaluation. According to the Evaluat ion Gui del ines for the Mini s t r y of Educat ion (1988: 1-5) , whi ch the Depar tment of Cur r i culum and Development st i l l fol lows , evaluat ion i s aimed at achiev ing eight inter related goals, namely:
· To inform decisions which influence policy format ion and development
· To recommend cour ses of act ion or changes in present activities.
· To clarify programme intents and reduce informational uncertainties
· To elucidate and possibly alter attitudes to the programme under scrutiny
· To encourage commitment to and ensure the context fit of program activities and goal s
· To provide insight into the programme activities and possible consequences
· To inform program management about problem and issues confront ing them
· To assess the needs which the programme addresses or should address.
In a study that evaluated community involvement in the implementation of the Communi t y Junior Secondary School Partnership Policy (CJSSPP) in Botswana, Tsayang (1994) established that the implementation of the CJSSPP was constrained by poor understanding of the partner ship policy by members of the Board of Governors . The Boards of Governor s are the s t ruc tures through whi ch communi t y par t i cipat ion in the running of the Communi t y Junior Secondar y School s i s fac i l i tated. The data f or the s tudy was col lec ted through semi – s t ruc tured inter views , observat ions and anal ys i s of documents .
On c r i t iqui ng the cur r i culum development and implementat ion in Botswana, Maruatona (1994) ident i f ies the major impediments to cur r i culum development as f i rst , the dominat ion of the el i te or rul ing c lass over the ruled. Second, the dominat ion of teacher s by the subject special i s t on the subjec t panel s vested wi th the tas k of cur r i culum development . Maruatona contends that subjec t spec ial i sts do not onl y inf luence what makes up the cur r i culum content , but al so the teachi ng and learning activities . “Teachers are occasional l y excluded, and thi s gi ves the specialist the opportunity to select content and decide on the teaching- learning activities and the teaching methods to be used” (1994:23) . Maruatona’s accusations against the Department of Curriculum Development and Evaluation are not supported by any evidence.
As far as Maruatona is concerned curriculum implementation is hindered by first, the use of Engl ish as the medium of ins t ruction at lower level s of schooling instead of the learner s’ mother tongue.

The case for the arts

What comes out c lear l y in the l i terature review i s that , in suppor t ing ar ts educat ion, the di f ferent resear chers ci ted in thi s Chapter stand on common ground in thei r understanding of the inter relat ionship between the di f f erent f orms of ar ts . Mos t impor tant l y, they share a common view of the value of ar ts educat ion. They see much good in ar ts educat ion, and convinc ingl y ex tol the v i r tues of ar ts educat ion. The subser v ience that some of the researcher s di s cern, emanates f rom the f act that i t i s not eas y to ac count for the place of ar ts educat ion in the general school cur r i culum si nce the ar ts are brought in to enr i ch the cur r i culum, but may not be examinabl e l i ke the more t radi t ional academi c subjects . Whi le there i s a camp that i s opposed to an integrated approach to the teaching of the ar ts on the grounds that i t i s minimal i s t in perspec t i ve and out look , and theref ore not get t ing to the core of the di f ferent ar ts subjects, the author suppor ts an integrated approach. Integrat ion i s a v iable opt ion to take in v iew of the overwhelming logi st i cs that have to be considered when teaching ar ts subj ects indi vidual l y, the main ones being t imetable space and staf f ing. In a normal s chool , the t imetable cannot ac commodate the di f ferent ar t subjects in indi v idual s lots. I f the ar ts should be taught as indi v idual cur r i culum subjects, then the staf f si ze on an ar ts programme that of fers the indi vidual subjects wi l l be too large, and there are related implications such as the budget for remuneration. Integrated teaching of arts can go a long way towards averting resource duplication and the immense costs that go with it, where individual art subjects have to be catered for individually in terms of the required resources.
With specific reference to a review of the methods of teaching and learning indigenous musical arts, it has emerged that the methods employed in their learning and teaching are profoundly and deeply embedded in the indigenous culture of the people. Imitation or rote learning, which typifies the process of enculturation, the bush school, and apprenticeship are methods whi ch have been used over the centuries. The methods have proved to be effective in achieving the intended results as they have produced capable musicians and other artists.

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1.1 Motivation to carry out the research
1.2 Music teacher training
1.3 Musi c in s chool s
1.4 Pr imar y educat ion in Botswana
1.5 The Creative and Performing Arts (CPA) syllabus
1.6 The Batswana as a nat ion
1.7 Problem statement
1.8 Main resear ch ques t ion
1.9 Research objectives
1.10 Significance of the study
1.11 Limi tat ion of the study
1.12 Del imi tat ion of the s tudy
1.13 Preview of Chapter s
2.1 Int roduc t ion
2.2 The ar ts in educat ion
2.3 The indigenous musi cal ar ts
2.4 The music curriculum
2.5 Arts-based Curricula and integration of content
2.6 Curriculum evaluat ion
2.7 Focus on the var ious evaluation approaches
2.8 Evaluat ion of curriculum implementat ion
2.9 An overview of educational evaluation and program implementation in Botswana
2.10 Conc lusion
3.1 Research design
3.2 Methodology
3.3 Data col lect ion ins t ruments
3.4 Data analysis
3.5 Pilot study
4.1 Purpose of the pi lot s tudy
4.2 The pi l ot sample
4.3 Access into the school s and ethical issues
4.4 The recording equipment
4.5 School grouping system and its implications on the methodology
4.6 Instrument validity and reliability
4.7 Data capture
4.8 Resul ts of the pi lot s tudy
4.9 Conclusion
5.1 Int roduc t ion
5.2 Access into the school s and ethical issues
5.3 Sour ces of data
5.4 Par t 1
5.5 Par t 2
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendat ions


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