ANALYSIS AND DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

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CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ENVIRONMENT AL EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

Theoretical debates on certain concepts in environmental education are common in literature. Various issues and concepts such as a definition of environmental education (Di singer 1983), appropriate aims and objectives of environmental education and environmental values are contentious issues in environmental education about which researchers often do not agree. On the other hand, a sound knowledge of the theoretical perspectives of environmental education is necessary for any person who wishes to teach in an environmentally directed way. A lack of a formal environmental education curriculum in an educational system, and a lack of knowledge and understanding of environmental education by man,y people thus preclude the possibility for any of them to teach in an environmentally directed way. While that is the position, environmental education is gaining popularity in South Africa (refer to chapter 1) but is also hampered by other factors such as those mentioned earlier in this paragraph, as well as by the incorrect understanding that people have of the concept of environmental education, and a lack of agreement about its place in the formal school curricu.lum.This chapter will endeavour to clarify certain concepts and define their meaning in the context of this study, but will also attempt to place environmental education into the context of educational theory. It will describe some of the theoretical perspectives on environmental education by highlighting the contributions of various authors, educationists and environmentalists with a view to applying some of the insights in subsequent chapters and the development of the interpreted model. In describing some theoretical perspectives, that is, the nature of environmental education, the analysis and definition as well as its aims and objectives, it will also be pointed out whether they address the problem of the study (refer to chapter 1) – how to teach in an environmentally directed way and if that is the case, how they address it. Since the ultimate aim of this study is to design a model (refer to chapter 5) to clarify the theory underlying the usage of teaching methods and paradigms that direct teaching in an environmentally directed way, it is believed at this stage in the research that differences in positions about the theory of environmental education are the result of support given to different paradigms (refer to chapter 3), and that this leads to environmental educators using different teaching methods or even ignoring the use of certain teaching methods.

 THE NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Many authors believe that every field of study, for example, natural and social sciences, has its own nature (Papenfus 1977:59-61; Degenaar 1985:25). Degenaar ( 1985:25) also maintains that the content of a field of study is linked to its nature. The question now arises whether environmental education should be regarded as a field of study or whether it should be considered an approach to learning.Although the view is held that environmental education could be a separate subject (Joubert & Steenkamp 1995:43), there appears to be wide support for the view that environmental education is not an independent field of study. That implies that it should rather be regarded as an interdisciplinary approach which, one could add, should be integrated into other school subjects or fields of study (Wolsk 1977:56; South Africa. White Paper on Environmental Education 1989:6; Joubert & Steenkamp 1995:43). Okot-Uma and Wereko-Brobby ( 1985:4) also maintain that environmental education in its formal pedagogical sense implies an integrated approach cutting across the traditional subject areas in order to enhance in the learner an awareness and understanding of and concern for the environment and its associated problems. This could be achieved through disseminating information through human activities. This means that the content of and skills developed through environmental education should be merged into existing school subjects or courses in such a manner that they are compatible with the nature of the school subject(s) or courses and do not dominate their content or jeopardise the integrity of the courses themselves (UNESCO 1989:57). The point of departure of this thesis is also that environmental education
( 1) should not be regarded as a separate school subject or viewed as an add-on to other school subjects as proposed by some authors (Joubert & Steenkamp 1995:43); and
(2) is an approach which emphasises learning through direct experience, leading to knowledge acquisition, development of skills and understanding of how to care for the whole environment and all those who share it (Scottish Environmental Education Council 1993: 52).
This point of departure is developed and presented in chapter 5. A survey of literature on environmental education indicates that environmental education has its roots way back during the era of Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebe! (Disinger 1983:3). The focus was then placed on outdoor education; not on environmental education. Interest in environmental education and the need for an educational approach to the environment gained momentum in the 1940s. This interest waned in the 1950s because of the demographic changes that had taken place in many countries of the world (Oisinger 1983:3). In the 1960s, interest in environmental education was revived. By 1969, sufficient interest in environmental education had been aroused to occasion the development of definitional statements in environmental education (Disinger 1983:3; UNESCO 1985:1).

CHAPTER 1: ORIENTATION
1. 1 INTRODUCTION
1 . 1 . 1 Environmental crises
1.1.2 The need to teach in an environmentally directed way
1.2 FACTORS LEADING TO THE PROBLEM AND FORMULATION 
1.2.1 Factors leading to the problem
1.2.2 The main problem
1.3 HYPOTHESIS
1.4 AIM OF THE STUDY 
1.5 RESEARCH METHOD
1.6 PROGRAMME OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
2. 1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 THE NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
2.3 ANALYSIS AND DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
2.3.1 The concept environment
2.3.2 The concept education
2.3.2.1 A conservative view of education
2.3.2.2 A liberal view of education
2.3.3 Definitions of environmental education
2.3.3.1 Environmental education as a process
2.3.3.2 Environmental education as an interdisciplinary and a holistic approach in formal education
2.3.3.3 Definition of environmental education for the purposes of this study
2.4 AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
2.4. 1 Introduction
2.4.2 Aims of environmental education
2.4. 2. 1 Environmental literacy
2.4.2.2 Action aims
2.4.3 Goals and objectives of environmental education
2.4.3.1 Goals and objectives focusing on knowledge
2.4.3.2 Goals and objectives focusing on skills
2.4.3.3 Goals and objectives focusing on values
2.5 OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION (QBE) 
2.6 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 3: PARADIGMS RELATING TO ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
3. 1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 THE CONCEPT PARADIGM
3.3 CATEGORIES OF PARADIGMS 
3.3.1 Positivism
3.3.2 Social critical theory
3.3.3 Constructivism
3.4 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 4: TEACHING METHODS APPROPRIATE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 DIDACTICS: TEACHING AND LEARNING
4.2.1 The conservative view of didactics
4.2.2 The liberal view of didactics
4.2.3 Definition of the term didactics in the study
4.2.4 Didactics in environmental education
4.3 TEACHING METHODS 
4.3.1 Teaching
4.3.2 Definition of teaching methods
4.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHING METHODS AND POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 
4.4. 1 Narrative method
4.4.2 Textbook method
4.4. 3 Cooperative learning as a teaching method
4.4.4 Demonstration method
4.4. 5 Discovery method
4.4.6 Discussion method
4.4. 7 Drill method
4.4.8 Experimental method
4.4.9 Free activity method
4.4. 10 Problem-solving method
4.4. 11 Project method
4.4.12 Question-and-answer method
4. 5 SUMMARY 
4.6 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 5: DEVELOPING AN INTERPRETIVE MODEL FOR TEACHING IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY DIRECTED WAY
5. 1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 DEVELOPING A MODEL
5. 2. 1 Defining a model
5.2.2 The value of a model in general
5.2.3 The value of a model for this study
5.3 THE AMOEBA METAPHOR
5.3.1 Some characteristics of an amoeba organism
5.3.2 Metaphorical implications of the characteristics of an amoeba for environmental education
5.3.3 Implications of the paradigm underlying this study towards the development of the model for environmental education
5.4 IMPLICATIONS OF THE PARADIGM WHICH UNDERLIES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMOEBA MODEL FOR TEACHING METHODS 
5.5 POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS OF THE UTILISATION OF TEACHING METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENT AL EDUCATION 
5.6 THE IDEAL AMOEBA MODEL
5. 7 THEORETICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE MODEL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
5. 7. 1 Theoretical interpretation of the model based on outcomes-based education (QBE)
5. 7 .2 Interpretive views of some experienced educationists regarding the model .
5. 7 .3 Deductions based on the interpretation of the model
5.8 ILLUSRATING THE VALUE OF THE AMOEBA MODEL BY USING A CASE STUDY
5.8.1 Deductions based on a positivist paradigm.
5.8.2 Deductions based on a social critical theory paradigm
5.8.3 Deductions based on a constructivist paradigm
5.8.4 Deductions made from the application of teaching methods
5.9 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE AMOEBA MODEL
6.1. INTRODUCTION 
6.2. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: OVERVIEW AND RELEVANCE
6.2.1. The development of qualitative research
6.2.2. The purpose of qualitative research
6.2.3. Methods of gathering data in qualitative research
6.2.4. Factors which determine validity and reliability in qualitative research
6. 2. 5. Importance of qualitative research for this study
6.3. RESEARCH DESIGN 
6.3.1. Selection of respondents
6.3.2. Invitation to prospective respondents
6.3.3. Notes about the model
6.3.4. Questions
6.4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 
6.4. 1. What is your opinion of the amoeba model in relation to environmental education?
6.4. 2. Why would you use or not use this model for teaching in an environmentally directed way?
6.4.3. What general suggestion(s) would you make regarding the model?
6.5. CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS ABOUT THE MODEL 
6.6. OVERVIEW OF ALL RESPONDENTS 
6. 7. CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY, TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
7.2.1 Theoretical perspectives on environmental education
7 .2.2 Paradigms relating to environmental education
7.2.3 Teaching methods appropriate for environmental education
7 .2.4 Developing an interpretive model for teaching in an environmentally directed way
7 .2.5. Qualitative analysis and interpretation of the amoeba model
7.3 TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS

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A MODEL FOR AN ENVIRONMENTALLY DIRECTED TEAGHING APPROACH

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