CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITHIN THE GLOBAL WORLD AND CONTEMPORARY SOUTH AFRICA

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CHAPTER 2: CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITHIN THE GLOBAL WORLD AND CONTEMPORARY SOUTH AFRICA

The image of man in Frankl’s works is the image of the ‘responsible self’. One’s essential task then becomes simply to be what he can be, to do what he can do,to honor what he sees through his own eyes and to say truthfully what he sees—to live authentically. And he must resist factors that exert pressures on him to live otherwise. The basic task then is always present—and always within one’s capacity (Wirth, 1976, p. 124).

INTRODUCTION

HEIs do not exist in a vacuum (Marginson & Van der Wende, 2007; Odendaal & Roodt,2001; Pillay, 2011; Salmi, 2012). They have expanded and comprise new types of institutions with the intent of developing a closer relationship between tertiary education and the external world (Pillay, 2011). The relationship is characterised by greater responsiveness to labour-market needs, enhanced social and geographical access to tertiary education, high level occupational preparation in a more applied and less theoretical way, and accommodation of the growing diversity of qualifications and expectations of school graduates (Pillay, 2011). “Competitive markets, rapidly changing communications and information technologies, and globalization are dimensions of the environment from which organizations struggle for competitive advantage” (Diamond & Allcorn, 2003, p. 493) therefore it is necessary to take into consideration the global and local contexts when studying what is happening at HEIs in order to understand its behaviour, the full dynamics of its achievements and its potential for enhancement (Diamond & Allcorn, 2003; Odendaal & Roodt, 2001; Salmi, 2012).Given the above statements, in Chapter 2 insight into the characteristics of the global and local HE contexts in which the study operates and some of its dynamic influences is given. Therefore, a discussion on the key trends in global higher education (GHE) is provided which are globalisation and massification. Moreover, in Chapter 2, aspects of the SA national and HE contexts is deliberated; some of the consequences of the changed and changing HE organisation is illuminated, including the effects and pressures of the changed and changing SAHE landscape for academic employees.

KEY TRENDS IN GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION

“Globalisation broadly refers to rising global trade and increased flows of people, capital,ideas and technologies across borders in recent decades” (NDP 2030, p. 21). It has compelled HEIs to respond to the challenge of transforming into institutions that are connected to the global world, irrespective of country of origin (Meyer, Bushney & Ukpere,2011; Popescu, 2015). In view of that, HEIs had to undergo considerable functional and structural changes as they adapt to meet the needs of a global and knowledge-based economy (Meyer et al., 2011; Popescu, 2015). Despite the pressure for transformation, there is consensus that GHE has withstood revolutionary changes in the past century, characterised by transformations unprecedented in scope and diversity (Altbach et al., 2009; Going Global 2012, 2012;NMC Horizon Report, 2013; SCUP Academy Report 2014, 2014). Moreover, since HEIs extended their connections and operations beyond the traditional boundaries of particular towns, cities and/or countries, significant relationships have transpired between the location of the institution and the scope, nature and phase of institutional globalisation.This refers to the extent of globalisation in developed countries contrasted with those in third world countries (Altbach et al., 2009; Meyer et al., 2011; Salmi, 2012). Altbach et al. (2009) compiled a report titled Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution in preparation for the UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education (HE). The report gave an account of the changes that took place in the GHE landscape during the period 1998 to 2009. They emphasised that the majority of trends that were discussed in 1998 remained the same and/or intensified over the 10-year period. Nevertheless, they singled out massification as a key reality and driver of change during this period (Altbach et al., 2009).Altbach (2013, p. 12) affirmed that massification and the global knowledge economy remained the two main drivers of HE transformation worldwide and that they “continue to produce unprecedented change, making it even more difficult to understand the nature of change and how to adjust to changing circumstances”. In this regard, Johal (2014, p. 2) noted that it was realised in the HE sector that it could not remain stagnant and, for that reason, the changes continued at an accelerating rate which made it “difficult to predict what the outcome will be when the dust settles”.

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DECLARATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND AND SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION TO THE RESEARCH
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The Higher Education Landscape.
1.2.1 The international higher education landscape
1.2.2 South African higher education landscape
1.2.3 The impact of the reform initiatives on SA academics and their careers
1.2.4 The emotional interlock between organisational and individual change processes, and loss
1.2.5 The well-being of SA academics
1.2.6 The significance of meaning for HE
1.3 The Problem Statement and Research Questions 
1.3.1 The research questions
1.4 Aims of the Research
1.4.1 The specific aims related to the literature review were:
1.4.2 The empirical aims related to the study were:
1.5 Paradigm Perspectives 
1.5.1 Professional context
1.5.2 Meta-theoretical context
1.5.3 Operational definitions
1.5.3.1 Sense of purpose and meaning in life
1.5.3.2 Presence of, and Search for meaning
1.5.3.3 Psychological health
1.5.4 Humanism or phenomenology as the psychological paradigm for this study
1.6 Research Design
1.6.1 Intervention mixed methods approach
1.6.1.1 Design purpose
1.6.1.2 Research approach
1.6.1.3 Design procedures
1.6.1.4 Data analysis steps and decisions
1.6.1.5 The mixed methods research questions
1.6.1.6 Mixed methods research framework
1.6.1.7 Strategies employed to ensure quality mixed methods data
1.6.2 Phase one qualitative study: Single case study design
1.6.3 Phase three quantitative study: Quasi-experimental single-group pretest/posttest design
1.7 Strengths and Challenges in using the Intervention Mixed Methods Design 
1.7.1 Advantages
1.7.2 Challenges
1.8 Ethical Procedures
1.9 Chapter Layout
1.10 Chapter Summary
CHAPTER 2: CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITHIN THE GLOBAL WORLD AND CONTEMPORARY SOUTH AFRICA
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Key Trends in Global Higher Education
2.2.1 Globalisation
2.2.2 Massification
2.3 The South African National and HE Contexts
2.4 The Changed and Changing HE Organisation
2.5 The Consequences and Effects of the Changing and Changed HE Landscape for Academic Employees
2.6 The SAHE Paradox Intensifies the Pressure on the Academe
2.7 Chapter Summary 
CHAPTER 3: VIKTOR E. FRANKL’S THEORY AND LOGOTHERAPY 
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Existential Phenomenology.
3.3 Biographical Overview of the origin and Development of Viktor Frankl’s Theory and Logotherapy 
3.4 Frankl’s Dimensional Ontology
3.5 Logotherapy
3.6 Meaning (Logos) 
3.7 Key Concepts in Logotherapy 
3.7.1 The three basic tenets
3.7.1.1 Freedom of will
3.7.1.2 The will to meaning
3.7.1.3 Meaning in life
3.7.2 Pathways to meaning
3.7.2.1 Creative values
3.7.2.2 Experiential values
3.7.3 Existential frustration and noögenic neuroses
3.7.4 The tragic triad
3.7.5 Conscience and self-transcendence
3.7.5.1 Conscience
3.7.5.2 Self-transcendence
3.7.6 Ultimate or supra-meaning
3.7.7 The spiritual dimension, noödynamics and mental health
3.8 Chapter Summary
CHAPTER 4: INTERVENTION MIXED METHODS STUDY 
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Phase One Qualitative Study: Single Case Study Design 
4.2.1 Research approach
4.2.2 Research method
4.2.3 Research strategy
4.2.4 Sampling procedures
4.2.4.1 Research setting and study population
4.2.4.2 Obtaining permissions
4.2.4.3 Sampling techniques and number of participants needed
4.2.4.4 Recruitment strategies
4.2.5 Data collection methods
4.2.5.1 Demographic information
4.2.5.2 Focus group interviews
4.2.5.3 Drawing association groups
4.2.6 Data analysis procedures
4.2.7 Strategies employed to ensure data quality
4.3 Phase Three Quantitative Study: Quasi-Experimental Single Group Pretest/Posttest Design 
4.3.1 Research approach
4.3.2 Research method
4.3.3 Research strategy
4.3.4 Sampling procedures
4.3.4.1 Research setting and study population
4.3.4.2 Obtaining permissions
4.3.4.3 Sampling techniques and number of participants needed
4.3.4.4 Recruitment strategies
4.3.5 Measuring instruments
4.3.6 Data collection procedures
4.3.7 Data analysis
4.3.7.1 Units of analyses
4.3.7.2 Statement of the core hypotheses
4.3.7.3 Statistical analysis procedures
4.3.7.4 Data analysis procedure for learning and/or discoveries questionnaire
4.3.8 Strategies to ensure quality data
4.3.8.1 Internal validity
4.3.8.2 External validity
4.3.8.3 Reliability
4.4 Chapter Summary 
CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE PHASE ONE QUALITATIVE STUDY 
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Overview Characteristics of the Participants
5.3 Themes and Sub-themes for Meaning and Meaning Frustration 
5.4 Discussion of the Qualitative Findings 
5.4.1 Meaning
5.4.1.1 Making a difference in students’ development
5.4.1.2 Appreciation received from students
5.4.1.3 The freedom of choice
5.4.1.4 Work is viewed as a calling
5.4.1.5 Working in HE offers unique benefits
5.4.1.6 Meaning beyond the meaning in the moment
5.4.1.7 Making a difference in staff’s lives
5.4.2 Meaning frustration
5.4.2.1 Negative emotions as an indicator of meaning frustration
5.4.2.2 Concern about HE change outcomes and purpose
5.4.2.3 Students’ unfulfilled basic needs
5.4.2.4 LAEs as a container for the prevailing negativity in the HE organisation
5.4.2.5 Silo functioning and impaired inter-personal and inter-disciplinary relationships
5.4.2.6 High administration loads and poor delivery by service departments
5.4.2.7 Pressure of improving qualifications, competition and professional envy/jealousy
5.4.2.8 Positivity as a defence against negativity
5.4.2.9 A seeming lack of support from leadership
5.5 Integrated Discussion
5.5.1. Exploring and describing the meaning and meaning frustration embedded in the academic employee experience
5.5.1.1 The ambivalence of HE and students as sources of meaning and/or meaning frustration
5.5.1.2 Appreciation from students as a source of meaning
5.5.1.3 The extrinsic and/or intrinsic value of the unique benefits of working in HE
5.5.1.4 The freedom of choice as a source of meaning
5.5.1.5 The calling in work as a source of meaning
5.5.1.6 Some of the characteristics of the HE organisational setting as a source of meaning frustration
5.6 Chapter Summary 
CHAPTER 6: THE LOGOTHERAPY BRIEF GROUP-BASED INTERVENTION
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Logotherapy as a Meaning-Centered Approach 
6.3 The “Therapy” in Logotherapy and its RelevanCE for Intervention in an Organisational Context
6.4 Logotherapy as a Brief Group-Based Approach
6.5 Contextual Model that Supported the Development and Implementation of the Intervention 
6.6 The Logotherapy Brief Group-Based Intervention Programme 
6.7 An Integrated Interactional Approach towards the Implementation of the Intervention Programme 
6.8 The Basic Techniques of Logotherapy as Applied during the Intervention Programme Implementation
6.9 Chapter Summary 
CHAPTER 7: RESEARCH RESULTS OF THE PHASE THREE QUANTITATIVE STUDY
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Purpose in Life Test 
7.3 Meaning in Life Questionnaire 
7.4 Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire 
7.5 The Participants’ Learning and/or Discoveries 
7.6 The Role of Resistance in the Intervention 
7.7 An Integrated Discussion on the Results
7.8 Chapter Summary 
CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS, CONTRIBUTIONS, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Conclusions
8.3 Contributions 
8.4 Limitations 
8.5 Finale – Answering the Research Question
8.6 Chapter Summary 
REFERENCES

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