Chinese Ceramics of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

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tive understanding of the resemblances and the differences between them. In this part, we make also a calculation of the mean mean motion of Titan with each ephemeris in different time span. For TASS, their mean mean motion and phase can be obtained over 10,000 years and over 1,000 years. For JPL, we only have the mean mean motion and phase over 1,000 years. So we can give a preliminary conclusion that the short time span makes no influence on the mean mean motion. However, it influences their phase. Then, we have to make a choice, not only for TASS, but also for JPL. In our following work, we take the phase from 10,000-year TASS ephemeris for the following use (JPL and TASS over 1,000 years).
Chapter 5 specifically describes our method to get the proper frequen-cies and to get the representation by a least squares method with a limited interval. Moreover, we make an experiment on the ascending node of Iape-tus, which has a period of more than 3,000 years so that it can not finish a first cycle after 1,000 years (time span for JPL). We get a rough amplitude and phase by using all the proper frequencies of TASS and the ephemeris of JPL. In this way, we prove that it is possible to obtain the proper frequency of the long-period motion, which is much longer than the time span of the JPL ephemeris.
In Chapter 6, we take the representation of the mean longitude of Ti-tan of TASS over 10,000 years as a template. We experiment to obtain the proper frequencies involved in the mean longitude of Titan with 1,000 years TASS ephemeris by a frequency analysis. With these two series of proper frequencies, we are aware about the effects of a limited interval ephemeris on the proper frequency. Moreover, according to the accuracy of such pro-per frequency, we can make a choice of the values used in the least squares method to seek the representation of the mean longitude of Titan, and then, to verify the effectiveness and exactness of the least squares method in re-building the representation. Finally and most importantly, we obtained the representation of Titan with 1,000 years TASS ephemeris.
It is shown in Chapter 7, that we can repeat all our previous work with JPL ephemeris. We obtain the proper frequencies of JPL along with the representation of the mean longitude of Titan with 1,000 years JPL ephemeris. It is then possible to give the final table of the mean longitude of Titan with JPL ephemeris. We discuss the residuals and the precision of our representation. Once this method is completed and proven effective for Titan and other satellites of Saturn, it will be easy to apply it to other planetary systems.
In Chapter 8, I present a collaborative work with my colleagues in China during the preparation of my thesis. It concerns the digitalization of the old plates and new observations reduction using the GAIA catalog.
Often presented as a miniature planetary system, natural satellites systems present an important difference, the close relationship by the scale times of there evolution. Tidal perturbation is proved as the major mechanism in their longtime evolution, which makes the study of natural satellites systems privileged to better understand the exoplanetary systems. To characterize the best orbit, it is necessary to consider the mass and form in the calcu-lations. This kind of system usually involves resonances in mean motion. Hence, the following researcher is required to develop analytic theory specific to the various system, to take into account the diverse orbital resonances.
Today, the numerical methods allow us to study all these systems with the same tool, thus enabling an exhaustive approach more efficient and ra-pid. The integration of the equation of motion is the main difficulty in the expansion of planetary satellites. Even if the recent gravitational fields of the giant planets are given with a high precision, it still remains a lack of understanding in temporal variation. Meanwhile, the presence of chaos, in some satellites, which are near to their planets, needs technique adaptations to predict their positions with a minimum of confidence.
In order to deal with these difficulties, on the borderline of our current physical knowledges, the development of a precise ephemeris of the natural satellites in the solar system needs a considerable upstream research works. These works benefit from the adapted numerical integration methods and the most diverse observations, from the ancient observations which were made at the end of 19th century, to the space observations. They were obtained by the most recent space probes such as Cassini and Mars Express.
In this chapter, we first present the numerical ephemerides (JPL and NOE) and then in the next sections, the analytic model (TASS)in an arti-culated way. We emphasize the form of the representation of TASS because our aim is to write the numerical ephemeris in a similar form.

The different kinds of ephemerides

Numerical integration

We are very interested in a highly precise ephemeris; so its users can plan their observations, or the spacecraft flyby. A numerical integration of the equation of motion could achieve such an accurate description of the motion with all the known perturbations. On the other hand, the prediction of ep-hemeris could not keep its precision very long. For example, it can barely last any longer than a few hundred years. The loss of precision is due to the uncertainty in the initial conditions, the incompleteness of the model and the accumulation error from the numerical integration, which does not keep the system properties. The numerical integration also could be used in describing the general motion over a huge time scale, from a few thousand to billion years, only considering secular phenomena. In both situations, we could obtain the evolution of the system over time, without any infor-mation neither on the influence from different origins, nor on the dynamic characteristics of the trajectories.

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Analytical theories

An analytic model aims to understand the details of the dynamics of the system, by explicitly taking into account the perturbations. In case of the orbital motion, we can develop the perturbing function according to the osculating elements, in order to use the Lagrange equations or their equi-valent in Hamiltonian form. There are different methods to solve these equations: successive approximations, Lie series, and so on. Concretely, we obtain an expansion of the osculating elements in trigonometric series, that means an analytic expression depending on time for the evolution of the system (list of amplitudes, frequencies and phases). Such expansion leads to a large quantity of terms (a priori infinite), which inevitably leads to a truncation at a certain level of amplitude or frequency compatible with the required precision. In addition, in order to obtain an explicit solution, theoretical studies always want to simplify the complex physical systems. Therefore, the analytic theories, which are considered to be more complica-ted, are difficult to handle and need more work to achieve a same precision as the numerical integration method. In other words, it informs directly on the mechanisms of the dynamics, and then, it has a much wider scope: overall evolution well described over a very long time scales, preservation of the properties of the system, methods useful for other similar systems, etc …

Synthetic representations

A compromise exists for both methods above: it is possible to rewrite the numerical integration solution into the form of an analytics one. In fact, if the system is integrable, there are action-angle variables, in which the dyna-mics should become very simple, and these coordinates can be obtained from a frequency analysis (Laskar.J 1993 [9]). Thus, the frequency analysis of the ”true” solution gives the amplitudes and frequencies in a numerical series equivalent to the analytical expansions. Therefore, the different perturba-tions can be identified (integer combinations of proper frequencies), and the obtained series are suitable for providing ephemeris. A more detailed discussion will be given in Chapter 3.

Table of contents :

Chapter 1. Terminology
1.1 Definitions
1.1.1 Terminology: definitions
1.1.2 Concept: definitions
1.1.3 What is a “characteristic” in Terminology?
1.1.4 Relation definition
1.1.4.1 Hierarchical relation
1.1.4.2 Associative relation
1.1.4.3 Ontological relation
1.1.5 Object definition
1.2 Theories
1.2.1 Theories of Terminology
1.2.2 ISO theory of Terminology
1.2.2.1 ISO Elements
1.2.2.2 Graphic representations of components in ISO terminology work
1.3 Methods
1.3.1 Research methods
1.3.2 Onomasiological vs. Semasiological process
1.3.3 Synchronic vs. Diachronic approach
1.4 Languages
1.4.1 General language
1.4.2 Special language
1.5 Tools
1.5.1 Tools for building a concept system
1.5.2 Terminological resources
1.5.3 Tools for extracting terms
Chapter 2. Ontology
2.1 Definitions
2.1.1 Philosophical ontology definition
2.1.2 Computational ontology definition
2.2 Theoretical foundations of ontologies
2.2.1 Main components of ontologies
2.2.2 Ontology types
2.2.3 Principles of ontology building
2.2.4 Ontology evaluation
2.2.4.1 Definition of ontology evaluation
2.2.4.2 Criteria of ontology evaluation
2.2.4.3 Method of ontology evaluation
2.2.4.4 Tools for ontology evaluation
2.3 Languages
2.4 Methods
2.5 Tools
2.5.1 Protégé
Chapter 3. Ontoterminology: Combining Ontology and Terminology
3.1 Definitions
3.1.1 Definition: Name, word, and thing
3.1.2 Definition: Ontoterminology
3.2 Theory
3.3 Methodology: Term-guided ontology building
3.3.1 Concept and essential characteristic
3.3.2 Term-guided method for defining concept
3.3.3 Ontoterminology: the example of seats
3.4 Tool
3.5 Protégé vs. Tedi
Chapter 4. Semantic Web for Cultural Heritage
4.1 Cultural Heritage
4.1.1 Definition
4.1.2 Categories of cultural heritage
4.2 Semantic Web
4.2.1 From Document Web to Web of data
4.2.2 Semantic Web stack
4.2.3 Linked Open Data
4.2.3.1 Linked data
4.2.3.2 Publishing Linked Data
4.2.3.3 Linked Open Data
4.2.3.4 Knowledge Graph
4.2.3.5 Vocabularies & Ontologies
4.3 Semantic Web for Cultural Heritage
4.3.1 Challenges of cultural heritage data
4.3.2 Semantic data models for cultural heritage
4.3.3 Related work
Conclusion
PART III: DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE
Chapter 1. Introduction to Chinese Ceramics
1.1 Glaze and Color
1.2 Period
1.3 Ornamentations
1.4 Kilns
1.5 Decoration crafts
Chapter 2. Chinese Ceramics of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
2.1 Reasons for Choosing Ming and Qing dynasties
2.2 Presentation of vessels
2.3 Presentation of vases
2.4 Chinese Ceramic Terminology
2.4.1 Regularity of naming and translation of Chinese ceramics
2.4.2 Analysis of Chinese ceramic terminology
Conclusion
PART IV: ONTOTERMINOLOGY OF THE CHINESE CERAMIC VESSEL
Chapter 1. Term-and-Characteristic guided Methodology
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Workflow of methodology
1.3 Identifying essential characteristic
1.3.1 Difference between objects
1.3.2 Morphological analysis of Chinese terms
1.4 Combining essential characteristic
1.5 Implementation
Chapter 2. TAO CI Ontology Authoring
2.1 Objectives
2.2 Competency questions
2.3 Collection of research objects
2.4 Linguistic Dimension: identifying term
2.4.1 Identifying terms (names) of vessels
2.4.2 Identifying terms (names) of vases
2.5 Conceptual Dimension: identifying essential characteristic
2.5.1 Essential characteristics: Vessel
2.5.1.1 Material
2.5.1.2 Function
2.5.1.3 Structure
2.5.2 Essential characteristics: Vase
2.5.2.1 Structure
2.5.3 Descriptive characteristic
2.6 Concepts building guided by terms
2.6.1 Proposing new terms
2.6.2 Building concepts guided by terms
2.7 Building ontology in Protégé
2.7.1 Conceptual dimension
2.7.1.1 Essential characteristic
2.7.1.2 Concept
2.7.1.3 Descriptive characteristic
2.7.1.4 Individual
2.7.1.5 Relation
2.7.2 Linguistic dimension
2.7.2.1 Term
2.7.2.2 Term Definition
2.7.2.3 Ontolex-Lemon
2.8 Integration
2.8.1 Resources
2.8.2 Reusing vocabularies & ontologies
2.8.3 Selecting vocabularies for mapping and linking
Chapter 3. TAO CI Ontology Description
3.1 Class
3.2 Property
3.3 Annotation
Chapter 4. Ontology Evaluation
Conclusion
Part V: APPLICATION: TAO CI WEBSITE
Chapter 1. Structure of the Website
Chapter 2. Function of the Website
2.1 Home
2.2 Ontology
2.3 E-dictionary

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