CONCEPTUAL INTERACTIVE-PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN MODEL

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Social marketing

Alcalay and Bell (2000) note that social marketing as an academic field traces its roots back to the famous question of Wieb (1952-1679): “Why can’t you sell brotherhood like you sell soap?” Seemingly, this question had provoked the social scientists to take a closer look at successful commercial marketing principles and techniques of selling ‘products’ and draw lessons from these for the purpose of being in a position to successfully sell ideas, attitudes and behaviours. Thus, the ‘birth’ of social marketing as an academic discipline emerged in the 1970s when Philip Kotler and Geral Zaltman came to the realization that the same marketing principles and techniques could be used albeit with some differences in successfully selling ideas (Weinreich 2003).

Seven steps approach

While the models discussed briefly above serve as a very insightful and helpful guide on how to research, plan and execute communication campaigns, it is necessary to note that as conceptualised representations of how to plan and execute a communication campaign, they do not specify or indicate anything about behaviour change, which is what communication campaigns seek to bring about. Because behaviour change can be said to be one of the main eventual objectives if not ‘the’ main objective of a communication campaign, there seems to be more that needs to be taken into consideration than what the models offer – that is, ‘best practice’ of developing a campaign according to stages. In this regard, Robinson (2009:1) cautions that when it comes to issues of behaviour change it is not simply or merely a matter of deciding on what behaviour to change or what would or should be the outcome of the communication campaign, “draw up a plan, assemble the tools and resources and manufacture the thing.”

CONCEPTUAL INTERACTIVE-PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN

MODEL As a summary of all the salient points discussed above regarding the need that communication campaigns should to be interactive and participative the influence of the context or environment such as political, economic, social, cultural, beliefs and worldview, and the need to include motive and sustain efforts at behaviour change, a new conceptual interactive and participative communication campaign model is proposed in Figure 3.9 as part of the contribution of this study to the field of communication campaign study and practice. The proposed model incorporates elements of the Health Communication Process (National Cancer Institute 1992), RACE, ROPE, RAISE and ROISE, and Robinson’s Seven Steps Approach (2009) and is built on the premise of the theoretical underpinnings of the study.

Continuous assessment/evaluation

Continuous assessment or evaluation is needed to ascertain whether the objectives set in Step 2, which warranted the development of Steps 3 and 4, have been achieved or not; and to determine what is need and how the campaign should be adapted to achieve the objectives. As can be noticed in the box representing Step 5, however, it is not only evaluation that is to take place but also monitoring. Monitoring cannot be done or should also not be done only at the end of the timeframe but during the course of the life span of the campaign. This requires that other appropriate forms of assessment/evaluation – context, formative, process, outcome and impact, should be carried out at various stages in the process of the campaign. The nature of these forms of assessment/evaluation is discussed further on in the study.

THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY

In this section, the theoretical conceptual framework that helped to set the parameters for the conceptualisation of the relationships and dynamics of the elements of culture, communication, the individual and the community against the background of the theories/models discussed above are presented in the following sequence. First by discussing system theory to serve as a meta-theory to explain the connectivity, integration and intertwining of the four main variables of this study. That is how the four variables form a ‘whole’ while at the same time each one remain unique with its own parts and on its own form a ‘whole’. An entity on its own that does not have to be considered as a part of the others to necessarily give it its meaning and value.

TABLE CONTENTS :

  • CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
    • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.2 THE GLOBAL CHALLENGE OF THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC
    • 1.3 STATE OF THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
    • 1.4 THE SITUATION OF THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 1.5 BACKGROUND OF HIV/AIDS CAMPAIGN IN EKHURULENI MUNICIPALITY
    • 1.6 RESEARCH RATIONALE
    • 1.7 RESEARCH PROBLEM
    • 1.8 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    • 1.9 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    • 1.10 RESEARCH DESIGN
    • 1.11 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 2 DEFINING THE KEY CONCEPTS
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS
      • 2.2.1 Assessment
      • 2.2.2 Communication
      • 2.2.3 Communication Campaigns
      • 2.2.4 Health Communication
      • 2.2.5 Health Communication Campaign
      • 2.2.6 Development Communication
      • 2.2.7 Culture
      • 2.2.8 Social
      • 2.2.9 Sociocultural
      • 2.2.10 Model
      • 2.2.11 Conceptual Model
      • 2.2.12 Modelling
      • 2.2.13 Structure
    • 2.3 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HEALTH COMMUNICATION
    • CAMPAIGNS AND THE CONCEPTUAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 3.3 THEORIES OF HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN
      • 3.3.1 Health belief model
      • 3.3.1.1 Individual perceptions
      • 3.3.1.2 Likelihood to action
      • 3.3.1.3 Modifying factors
      • 3.3.1.4 Modified health belief model
      • 3.3.2 Social learning/cognitive theory
      • 3.3.3 Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour
      • 3.3.3.1 Theory of reasoned action
      • 3.3.3.2 Theory of planned behaviour
      • 3.3.4 Stages of change model
      • 3.3.5 Social marketing
      • 3.3.6 The health communication process
      • 3.3.7 Seven steps approach
    • 3.4 CURRENT APPROACHES AND INHERENT CHALLENGES IN EVALUATING HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGNS
    • 3.5 CONCEPTUAL INTERACTIVE-PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN MODEL
      • 3.5.1 Identification and analysis of the problem or issue
      • 3.5.2 Strategic interactive planning and development of the campaign
      • 3.5.3 Strategic management
      • 3.5.4 Creative implementation and monitoring
      • 3.5.5 Continuous assessment/evaluation
    • 3.6 THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
      • 3.6.1 General system theory
      • 3.6.2 The work of Vygotsky espoused in his sociocultural theory
      • 3.6.3 Self-determination theory
    • 3.7 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 4 MODELLING A CONCEPTUAL SOCIOCULTURAL HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN MODEL
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 STRUCTURES AND STAGES FOR THE MODELLING A CONCEPTUAL
    • SOCIOCULTURAL HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN MODEL
      • 4.2.1 Structures in modelling
      • 4.2.1.1 The systemic structure
      • 4.2.1.2 The geometric structure
      • 4.2.1.3 The object structure
      • 4.2.1.4 The interactive structure
      • 4.2.1.5 The temporary structure
      • 4.2.2 Stages in model development
      • 4.2.2.1 The description stage
      • 4.2.2.2 The formulation stage
      • 4.2.2.3 The ramification stage
      • 4.2.2.4 The validation stage
    • 3.3 A CONCEPTUAL SOCIOCULTURAL HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN MODEL
      • 4.3.1 Modelling the outer and inner structures of the conceptual sociocultural health communication campaign model
      • 4.3.2 Modelling the connections of the parts and processes of the conceptual sociocultural health communication campaign model
      • 4.3.3 Representatives of the target audience and communication campaign planners
      • 4.3.4 Strategic
      • 4.3.5 Active participation and interaction
      • 4.3.6 The health problem and the health behaviour of target audience
      • 4.3.7 Objectives of the communication campaign
      • 4.3.8 Developing and pre-testing concepts, messages and materials
      • 4.3.9 Implementing integrated communication campaign
      • 4.3.10 Continuous monitoring and evaluation
    • 4.4 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 5 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND FOUNDATIONS OF A THEORETICAL SOCIOCULTURAL ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT
    • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 5.2 ASSESSMENT AND RELATED TERMS
    • 5.3 FOUNDATIONAL ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THEORIES FOR THE ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT
      • 5.2.1 Types of assessment
      • 5.2.1.1 Formative evaluation
      • 5.2.1.2 Summative evaluation
      • 5.2.1.3 Context evaluation
      • 5.2.1.4 Process evaluation
      • 5.2.1.5 Outcome evaluation
      • 5.2.1.6 Impact evaluation
    • 5.3 MODELS OF ASSESSMENT
      • 5.3.1 Logic model
      • 5.3.2 Participatory model
      • 5.3.3 Empowerment model
      • 5.3.4 CDC Framework
      • 5.3.4.1 Engage stakeholders
      • 5.3.4.2 Describe the programme
      • 5.3.4.3 Focus the evaluation design
      • 5.3.4.4 Gather credible evidence
      • 5.3.4.5 Justify conclusions
      • 5.3.4.6 Ensure use and share lessons learned
    • 5.4 A THEORY-DRIVEN ASSESSMENT CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
    • 5.5 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 6.2 INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES
      • 6.2.1 The qualitative and quantitative techniques
      • 6.2.2 Research sample
      • 6.2.3 Data collection method
      • 6.2.4 Data analysis
    • 6.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORETICAL SOCIOCULTURAL ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGNS
      • 6.3.1 The theoretical sociocultural assessment instrument
      • 6.3.1.1 The SBCC quality assessment tool
      • 6.3.1.2 The SBCC Capacity Assessment Tool (SBCC-CAT)
      • 6.3.1.3 C-Change SBCC Data Analysis
      • 6.3.1.4 Flexibility and Adaptability of C-Change Assessment Tools
      • 6.3.2 The Parts of the theoretical sociocultural assessment instrument
      • 6.3.2.1 Stage 1: Strategic planning and development
      • 6.3.2.2 Stage 2: Developing and pre-testing concepts, messages and materials
      • 6.3.2.3 Stage 3: Programme implementation
      • 6.3.2.4 Stage 4: Continuous programme monitoring and evaluation
    • 6.4 PROCESS OF ADMINISTERING THE THEORETICAL SOCIOCULTURAL
    • ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT IN AN INTERACTIVE GROUP SESSION
    • 6.5 ISSUES OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN THE USE OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT
    • 6.6 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 7 TESTING THE THEORETICAL SOCIOCULTURAL ASSESSMENT
    • INSTRUMENT, THE RESULTS AND THE FINDINGS
    • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 7.2 TESTING THE INSTRUMENT
    • 7.3 RESULTS AND FINDINGS
      • 7.3.1 Stage 1: Planning and Developing Strategy
      • 7.3.1.1 Analysis of individual’s answers to questions of Stage
      • 7.3.1.2 Analysis of group answers to questions of Stage
      • 7.3.1.3 Overall standard point/s of Stage
      • 7.3.2 Stage 2: Development and pre-testing concepts, messages and materials
      • 7.3.2.1 Analysis of individual’s answers to questions on Stage
      • 7.3.2.2 Analysis of group answers to questions of Stage
      • 7.3.2.3 Overall standard points of Stage
      • 7.3.3 Stage 3: Campaign Implementation
      • 7.3.3.1 Analysis of individuals’ answers to questions of Stage
      • 7.3.3.2 Analysis of group answers to questions of Stage
      • 7.3.3.3 Overall points of Stage
      • 7.3.4 Stage 4: Continuous Monitoring and evaluation
      • 7.3.4.1 Analysis of individual participants’ answers to questions of Stage
      • 7.3.4.2 Analysis of group answers to questions of Stage
      • 7.3.4.3 Overall standard points of Stage
    • 7.4 OVERALL SOCIOCULTURAL STANDARD
    • 7.5 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
    • 7.6 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION
    • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 8.4 MAIN CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY
    • 8.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
    • 8.6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    • 8.7 CONCLUSION

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
A THEORETICAL SOCIOCULTURAL ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGNS

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