COURSES FOR THE DIPLOMA IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION IN ZIMBABWE AND SOUTH AFRICA

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Generic Processes of Administration

Mellish and W annenburg (1993: 179) state that administration can be divided into six generic processes, identified as follows: policy making; financing; organization; providing and utilising personnel; determining work procedures and control. Mellish and Lock (1992: 10 – 20) elaborate on the role of the nurse manager in ‘ relation to the generic processes o:f administration. In nursing management, policy making occurs at several levels besides the national level. Policy making determines the type of service given, the method of providing nursing care, job descriptions and the number of personnel required. The nurse manager has a responsibility to ensure that provision is made for nursing needs in the estimate of revenue and expenditure. His/her task is to ensure that the best use is made of available finance and that equipment and supplies are used economically. A great deal of expertise is required from the nurse management in personnel utilisation to enable staff to achieve the objectives of service and also to allow the various members to develop and obtain true job satisfaction. Work procedures are necessary so that members of the team charged with policy implementation may proceed in an orderly and constructive ma.

ROLE OF THE NURSE MANAGER

Swansburg and Swansburg (1999: 36) indicate that the nurse manager performs the functions of planning, organising, leading and controlling the activities of nursing departments. Planning is a major function of nursing management that is primary to all other activities. Koch (1996: 83) points out that. in the planning process the vision, mission, philosophy, goals and objectives are crucial in giving a purposeful direction at all levels in the organization. In Zimbabwe the nurse manger involves the subordinates in coming up with the mission, philosophy and goals of the nursing units. According to Du Preez (1998: 4), in strategic planning the miss10n of the organization is formulated, the external and internal environments are analysed, objectives are set, and strategies devised. Action plans are drawn up for achieving the objectives in terms of the mission statement. The nurse manager implements the plans, monitors the progress and conducts an evaluation.

TRAINING NEEDS 01\ THE NURSE MANAGER

Whilst the responsibilities of nurse managers are numerous, Nowell cited by DiMarco, Goodson and Hauser (1993: 60) indicates that inadequate preparation for their management role has created a sense of frustration and dissatisfaction among nurse managers. The dissatisfaction has produced unsatisfactory results for hospitals. In order for nurse managers to effectively execute their roles, Cuthbert and Duffield (1992: 7); and Mellish and Lock (1992: 65) recommend training. The training for nurse managers must be constantly updated to meet the ever changing needs. Care (1996: 27) recognises the importance of accurately identifying a learner’s needs as paramount to the success of any staff development endeavour. The ‘ course for the Diploma in Nursing Administration in Zimbabwe is being evaluated in order to meet the training needs of nurse managers. According to Watt, cited by Walker (1993: 81 ), the evolving roles and functions of nurses require them to address issues such as health policy, planning and resource allocation.

Admission to the Course

In Zimbabwe, candidates eligible for admission to the course must be holders of the General Certificate of Education with passes in five subjects at Ordinary Level. The five subjects must include English Language and a science subject. Candidates with an equivalent or higher certificate may also be admitted on the course. In South Africa, a senior certificate or equivalent qualification is required by the Council. In both countri’es the Councils may approve admission of candidates without the stated academic qualifications. The stating of minimum academic qualifications for admission to the courses is necessary so as to ensure that candidates admitted on the courses can cope with the academic requirements of the courses. Candidates admitted to the course in Zimbabwe are registered nurses who possess at least one additional qualification in nursing. The candidates should have had at least five years’ nursing experience, exclusive of any training to be a nurse. In South Africa, candidates admitted to the course should also be nurses registered with the Council. Although the candidates in Zimbabwe are required to have had at least five years’ experience, most of the candidates who come for training have much more than five years’ experience. This is because of the limited number of vacancies available for training

Assessment During Tra~ning

During the course the students in Zimbabwe are to complete tests and assignments required by the tutors of the course. Some of the assignments are presented to the class. This enables the tutors to assess the public speaking skills of the students. The students are also required to conduct a research study during the course. In South Africa, the students are given tests and assignments and also conduct research projects. The giving of assignments to students enables them to actively participate in their own learning. The imparting of research skills to the students will enable them to conduct research studies in nursing practice which should lead to improvement of services to clients.

TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • SUMMARY
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • CONTENTS
  • LIST OF TABLES
  • LIST OF FIGURES
  • APPENDICES
  • CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND INFORMATION
    • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.2 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
    • 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
    • 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    • 1.5 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
    • 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    • 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    • 1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    • 1.9 THE PURPOSE OF PROGRAME EVALUATION
    • 1.10 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
    • 1.11 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
  • CHAPTER 2: APPROACHES TO NURSING MANAGEMENT
    • INTRODUCTION
    • ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES
    • 2.2.1 Classical School of Management
      • 2.2.1.1 Scientific Management
      • 2.2.1.2 The Management Process School
      • 2.2.1.3 The Bureaucratic Model
    • 2.2.2 Modern Organizational Theories
    • 2.2.3 General Processes of Administration ROLE OF THE NURSE MANAGER
    • 2.4 TRAINING NEEDS OF THE NURSE MANAGER
    • 2.5 COURSES FOR THE DIPLOMA IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION IN ZIMBABWE AND SOUTH AFRICA
      • 2.5.1 Conditions for the Approval of Schools
      • 2.5.2 Training Centres
      • 2.5.3 Admission to the Course
      • 2.5.4 Duration of the Courses
      • 2.5.5 Assessment During Training
      • 2.5.6 The Examinations
      • 2.5.7 Admission to the Examination
      • 2.5.8 Readmissions to the Examinations
      • 2.5.9 Registration of Additional Qualification
      • 2.5.10 Syllabi of the Courses
    • 2.6 SUMMARY
  • CHAPTER 3: TEACHING STRATEGIES IN NURSING
    • EDUCATION
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 3.2 THE ASSUMPTIONS OF PEDAGOGICAL AND ANDRAGOGICAL MODELS OF LEARNING
      • 3.2.1 Concept of the Leamer
      • 3.2.2 Role of Learner’s Experience
      • 3.2.3 Readiness to Learn
      • 3.2.4 Orientation to Leaming
      • 3.2.5 Motivation to Learn
    • 3.3 PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING
    • 3.4 TEACHING METHODS
      • 3.4.1 The Lecture
      • 3.4.2 Group Discussion
      • 3.4.3 The Demonstration
      • 3.4.4 Role-Play
      • 3.4.5 Nursing Rounds
      • 3.4.6 Computer-Assisted Instruction
      • 3.4.7 Tutorials
    • 3.5 LEARNING RESOURCES
    • 3.6 THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
    • 3.7 CORRELATION OF THEORY WITH PRACTICE
    • 3.8 CRITICAL THINKING
    • 3.9 SUMMARY
  • CHAPTER 4: PROGRAMME EVALUATION
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 TYPES OF EVALUATION
    • 4.3 PROGRAMME EVALUATION MODELS
      • 4.3.1 Tyler’s Behavioural Objectives Evaluation Model
      • 4.3.2 Stake’s Countenance Evaluation Model
      • 4.3.3 Provus’s Discrepancy Model
      • 4.3.4 Scriven’s Goal-Free Evaluation Model
      • 4.3.5 Parlett and Hamilton’s Illuminative Evaluation Model
      • 4.3.6 Hammond’s Goal-Attainment Model
      • 4.3.7 Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Model
    • 4.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
    • 4.4.1 Stufflebeam’s Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) Evaluation Model
    • 4.4.2 Objectives of the Study
    • 4.5 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • CHAPTER 6: DATA PRES~NTATION AND INTERPRETATION
  • CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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A STUDY ON AN EVALUATION OF THE COURSE FOR THE DIPLOMA IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION IN ZIMBABWE

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