Brand management is the concept of how to identify and establish the brand personality through design, advertising, marketing and how to manage the brand (De Vault, 2016).
Many authors on the subject of branding (Aaker,1991; De Chernatony & Riley, 1998; Keller, 2013; Fill, 2013) adhere to the definition from 1960, from American Marketing Association. They state that a brand is either a combination of a name, term, sign, logo, or design. A brand has the purpose to identify products and services from one seller and differentiate from the competitors (AMA, 1960). De Chernatony & Riley (1998) argued that a brand is much more than just viewing what a company offers to differentiate. They determine 12 different types of definitions that they used, e.g., brands as adding value, brand as a personality and brand as a risk reducer. According to Fill (2013), a brand shows the position of the company in the eyes of the stakeholders. Keller (2013) states that a brand is something that has created an amount of awareness and has increased reputation in a market. A product can in many cases be duplicated and produced by competitors, but a brand is exclusive and rare which cannot be copied by others (King et al., 2007). Brand names and brand logos helps consumers to find the product they want, and they also know the quality and features to expect from the brand, when they purchase the same brand several times (Kotler & Armstrong, 1999). A brand is the concept of giving the product a meaning and create awareness for the consumers. Meanwhile, branding is the process to get the brand to consumer’s mind. The ambition with branding is to receive loyal customers by offering a product that meets the expectation and promises of the brand (Kotler & Keller, 2015).
For a brand to be prosperous and more profitable, it is crucial that the brand is credible and have a positive reputation. In order to evolve a reputation for a brand, the corporation requires thinking in a long-term perspective. The reputation is something that is not earned over a night and it takes time to form. If a company obtain a strong reputation over a long time, the probability to have satisfied customers will increase. However, if the company do not fulfil their promises, the reputation will drastically decrease (Herbig & Milewicz, 1995). Veloutso & Moutinho (2009) mentions that the brand reputation appears as a result of the communication and brand image that the corporation distributes to its audience. Thus, consumers have a tendency to value a brands quality through its previous actions and its presences on the market. Consumers have their positive view based on the credibility of the company. Additionally, trust is one of the fundamentals of building a reputation, and as mentioned above the customers have expectations of the brand and product that the company is required to meet in order to be reliable in the eyes of the consumers (De Chernatony, 1999).
According to Aaker (1991), Brand equity is one of the most attractive subjects that exist in management. Brand equity is the link between name and logo/symbol and the product/service that is provided to the consumers (Aaker, 1991; Keller 2013). Brand equity has a financial perspective as customers are paying for a brand. The financial aspect in brand is just which price the customers are willing to pay to buy just that specific brand (Keller & Lehman, 2006). The brand equity is divided into four categories (assets); brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand associations as can be seen in Figure 2.
1.1 Problem discussion
2 Frame of Reference
2.1 Crisis management
2.2 Brand Management
2.3 Crisis management’s effect on brand reputation
3 Method and Data
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Research Philosophy
3.3 Research Approach
4 Empirical Data
5.1 External Factors
5.2 Internal Factors
5.3 Crisis Management effect on brand reputation .
7.1 Managerial Implication
7.3 Future research
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Crisis Management & Brand Reputation