Chapter 2: Information Gathered and Literature Reviewed
Small system– water system serving less than 3,300 people
Community water system (CWS)– a public water system providing water to at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 yearround residents Transient non-community system (TNC)– serve transient populations in a specific geographic place (e.g. campgrounds, gas stations, parks) Non-transient non-community system (NTNC)– a public water system that is not a community water system and that regularly supplies water to at least 25 of the same people, at least six months each year but not year-round (e.g. schools, factories, hospitals) Licensure- a method of regulation whereby the Commonwealth of Virginia, through the issuance of a license, authorizes a person possessing the character and minimum skills to engage in the practice of a profession or occupation which is unlawful to practice without a license Public water system (PWS)– a system that provides water to the public for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances, if such a system has at least fifteen service connections or regularly serves at lest twenty-five individuals. Such term includes (i) any collection, treatment, storage, and distribution facilities under control of the operator of such systems and used primarily in connection with such system, and (ii) any collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under such control which are used primarily in connection with such system.
Overview of Regulations
Virginia Waterworks Regulations for Personnel (12 VAC 5-590-460)
A. Waterworks operators designated by the waterworks owner to be in responsible charge must possess a valid waterworks operator license issued by the Virginia Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Operators (VBWWO), Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation (DPOR), in accordance with that board’s regulations (18 VAC 160-20-10 et seq.) and Chapters 1,2,3 and 23 of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia. The license must be of a classification equal to or higher than that of the waterworks. Additional operating personnel at the waterworks must also be licensed as specified below.
B. The number and class of operators in attendance and additional operating personnel are a minimum to meet the requirements of protection of the public health of the consumer and safety of the operating personnel. The classification of operators and additional operating personnel in attendance must conform with Table 2.1.
B1. The owner shall designate one or more properly licensed operators to be in responsible charge of the waterworks at all times. When no designated operator is on duty or in communication with the operating personnel in attendance at the waterworks, a substitute operator shall be designated by the owner. The substitute operator shall possess a valid operator license of a classification equal to or greater than that of the waterworks.
B2. All waterworks having design capacity of 2.0 mgd or higher and employing filtration must have a minimum of two operating personnel on duty whenever the plant is in operation. All other waterworks employing filtration must have a minimum of one
operating person on duty whenever the plant is in operation.
B3. Waterworks designed for softening only and utilizing chemical precipitation: B3a. Waterworks having a design capacity of 2.0 mgd or higher must have a minimum of two operating personnel in attendance at all times the plant is in operation; and
B3b. All other waterworks must have a minimum of one operating person in attendance at all times the treatment plane is in operation.
B4. Waterworks utilizing iron and manganese removal by precipitation and having a design capacity of 0.5 mgd or higher must have a minimum of one operating person on duty at all times the treatment plant is in operation.
B5. Waterworks providing treatment or no treatment and serving 400 or more persons and not previously covered will require daily attendance at each treatment facility by an operating person for sufficient time to insure proper operation of the facility and protection of the public health, as determined by the commissioner
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Information Gathered and Literature Review
2.2 Overview of Regulations
2.2.1 Virginia Waterworks Regulations for Personnel.
2.2.2 Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation (DPOR) Regulations .
2.2.3 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Register: Final Guidelines for the Certification and Recertification of the Operators of Community and Nontransient Noncommunity Public Water Systems
2.3.1 Development of a Small Systems Survey
2.3.2 Current State of Small Systems in Virginia
2.3.3 Operator Training and Qualifications.
2.3.4 Establishment of New Class VI License
2.3.5 The Grandparenting Clause
2.3.6 Continuing Education Requirements
2.3.7 Circuit Riders
2.4 Review of Other States Programs
2.5 Published Literature
2.5.1 Development of Small Systems Survey
2.5.2 Current State of Small Systems
2.5.3 Operator Training and Qualifications
2.5.4 The Grandparenting Clause
2.5.5 Continuing Education Requirements
Chapter 3. Methods
3.1 Survey Background Information
3.2 Instrument Design
3.3 Data Entry
Chapter 4. Survey Results
4.1 Profile of the Responding Owner/Operator
4.2 Small Public Water System Profile
4.3 Operations and Facilities at Public Water Systems
4.4 Sources of Technical Assistance
4.5 Certification / Licensure Issues
4.6 Financial Implications of Licensure
4.7 Operator Training
Chapter 5. Discussion
5.1 State Implementing of Licensure in Virginia
5.2 Small Water System Diversity
5.3 Financial Status of Virginia’s Small Public Water Systems
5.4 Public Water System Operator Training in Virginia
5.5 Licensure versus Certification
5.6 Difficulties Facing Small Systems
Chapter 6. Summary
Chapter 7. Literature Cited
Chapter 8 Appendix
Chpater 9 Vita