Electronic colonialism and the new technology

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

 INTRODUCTION

The previous chapter revealed that this study is concerned with the mediation of multilingualism, the localisation exercise and nation building in the ZBC broadcasting in the context of the local content and multilingual broadcasting policies subsumed in the BSA (2001) and the BSAA (2007) respectively. Therefore, this study is concerned with the harmonisation of the subjects of multilingualism, localism and the Zimbabwean national identity in the ZBC. The study pursues this intent by analysing the language use patterns,language choices and prominence in the public service broadcasting space with the purpose of defining the locality and the national identity of Zimbabwe. This is done with the considerations on language competition amongst the hegemonic languages, that is, the English language, Shona and Ndebele and the rest of the minority languages, globalisation, rapid technological advances and digitalisation. Against this background, this chapter is devoted to the review of the extant literature which is concerned with the concepts of nationbuilding in Zimbabwe, language and nation-building, language use and the media, the media and nation-building, as well as linguistic hegemony, marginalisation and exclusion. This endeavour situates the study in the rightful conceptual and practical context. The discussion in this chapter is conducted within the context of the argument that, it is convoluted to define the locality and national identity of Zimbabwe through language use and practices on the ZBC radio and television stations due to the layered linguistic hegemonies in multilingual Zimbabwe displayed in the ZBC. More so, the speedy advances in technology, globalisation and electronic colonisation further complicate the drive to define the locality and national identity of Zimbabwe through language in the public broadcasting space.

THE SEARCH FOR NATIONAL IDENTITY: A HARD ROAD!

In a review of Ndhlovu’s book, The Politics of Language and Nation Building in Zimbabwe (2009), Mpofu (2012: 221) observes that there is a growing body of literature on the politics of nation-building in Zimbabwe which include captivating titles like, Do Zimbabweans Exist? Nation Building, Identity and Violence by Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2009), From Buoyancy to Crisis, 1980-1997 by Muzondidya (2009), Becoming Zimbabwe: A History from the Pre-colonial Period to 2008 by Raftopoulos and Mlambo (2009) among others. Central to the arguments raised in this burgeoning body of literature is the challenge of constructing a unified Zimbabwean national identity in a society which is intensely divided along racial, ethnic, gender, geographical, political and linguistic lines which is confronting the postindependence leadership of Zimbabwe (Muzondidya, 2009: 167). This demonstrates the point that there is nothing novel in saying that identities are complex, variable, elastic and subject to manipulation (Maalouf, 2000). However, as demonstrated in this chapter, the Zimbabwean national project has not been explored evocatively on the basis of language use patterns, particularly multilingualism in broadcasting which is one of the critical sites in which national identities are constructed and contested.In this chapter, it is observed that Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2004, 2009) is obsessively preoccupied with the arduous character of the Zimbabwean nation and nationalism. For the purposes of this study, three works by this scholar are reviewed in this section. To start with NdlovuGatsheni (2004) explores the representation, hegemony and the culture of commemoration which is evident in the re-imagination of the Zimbabwean nation predicated on the use of the father figure of Joshua Nkomo after his death. He argues that, this re-imagination of the Zimbabwean nation takes the structure of a family epic headed by President Robert Mugabe who is “the practical creator of what Nkomo founded and is the leading ideologist and articulator of Zimbabweanism” (Ndlovu-Gatsheni: 2004: 74). As the title of this section suggests, Ndlovu-Gatsheni’s avowal demonstrates that the forging of the Zimbabwean nation is a contested terrain, a revelation which is appropriate information to this study which ventures into the construction of the Zimbabwean nation through language in broadcasting.However, unlike the work under review this study does not focus on particular individuals like Nkomo, but the focus is on the language question, that is on the language choices and practices in the re-imagining of the multilingual Zimbabwean nation on ZBC radio and television in particular and the media in general in line with the argument that “the current conception of the Zimbabwean nation is a system of representation articulated in and through…the media” (Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2004: 86).
Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2009) examines the nature of the Zimbabwean national project, providing a radical and critical analysis of the problems of Zimbabwean nationalism in the postindependence period. Ndlovu-Gatsheni is preoccupied with recounting the faultlines of the Zimbabwean national project, critically engaging with the partisan nature of Zimbabwean nationalism, and its failure to create a unified nation which is violence free, democratic and where human rights are respected. He grapples with the question of the making of ‘Zimbabweans’ in the context of the contested politics of nation reconstruction and citizenship and concludes that this national project is a terrain of struggles (Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2009: 147). This is a demonstration that this study is concerned with a contested terrain since the agenda of constructing one nation and common identity is not an easy one. However, in relation to this study, Ndlovu-Gatsheni is preoccupied by the centralisation of the Zimbabwean national project on Robert Mugabe and ZANU-PF and for that reason he did not give particular attention to the language question in the Zimbabwean national question.Though he makes an attempt to explore the role of the media in Zimbabwean nation-building project, his concentration is not on language use patterns in the media, but on how the media were used as an ideological state apparatuses through such programmes like National Ethos which were anchored by what he terms ‘regime scholars’ to interpellate the subjects (the Zimbabweans) via the use of culture based debates which essentialised African identity. In his critique of the Zimbabwean national project, Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2009) superficially mentions the language issue which is the major concern of this study. However, he expressively concentrated on the marginalisation of the Ndebele language in the national identity construction project, and the political contestations in the post-independent Zimbabwe. Contextualising these debates, Ndlovu-Gatsheni (ibid) argues that rivalry has existed between the Shona and the Ndebele ethnic groups, a factor which can also explain why it has been difficult to arrive at a homogeneous and distinctive Zimbabwean national identity in the country’s historical phases. Therefore, he presents Zimbabwe as a ‘bifurcated’ Ndebele-Shona state. This study contends that Ndlovu-Gatsheni’s analysis presupposes that Zimbabwe is comprised of only two languages. Hence, this study broadens the scope to focus on Zimbabwe as a multilingual and multicultural country as it is represented in the public service broadcasting in the global and digital age. Ndlovu-Gatsheni and Willems (2009) examine the cultural events and activities that were promoted in the Zimbabwe national project in the 2000s which they consider to be part of cultural nationalism. They argue that the fetishised nation which is marked by contestations was forged and legitimised through musical galas like the Mzee Bira and the Umdhala Wethu, as well as the commemoration of national days such as the Independence, Heroes and the Unity days. They also note that this project of cultural nationalism in Zimbabwe was elaborately covered by the media, particularly the state broadcaster, the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC). This implies that the broadcaster was incorporated into the state-led project of cultural nationalism as shown by the introduction of the ZBC’s ‘Vision 30’ in November 2001. Through this strategy, the ZBC vowed “to provide world-class quality programmes and services that reflect, develop, foster and respect the Zimbabwean national identity, character, cultural diversity, national aspirations and Zimbabwean and PanAfrican values”’ (Moyo, 2006: 282). This Zimbabwean cultural nationalism project is also premised on the Broadcasting Services Act which was enacted in April 2001 and it stipulates the local content conditions of seventy-five percent in radio and television broadcasting. Ndlovu-Gatsheni and Willems (2009) conclude that the national imagery that was promoted through cultural events and activities was by no means inclusive but resulted in a mediated ‘party-nation’. This is a very important context in which this study is located. It is in this context in which the springboard of this study is also positioned, a springboard which is characterised by the setting out of the local content conditions for broadcasting and the aspiration to create a distinct national identity. Therefore, this study evaluates the status of the indigenous African languages in the ZBC programming as the local content broadcasting policy translated into programming and the re-imagining of the nation through language of broadcasting. However, this study was not about events and activities but it was concerned with the language choices and practices in ZBC programming considering that Zimbabwe is a multilingual nation and language operates as a representational system,representing the people’s concepts, ideas and feelings (Hall, 2007).Mpondi (2004) departs from a generalised critique of the Zimbabwean national project.Rather he investigated how the institution of education has been used by the post-independent government of Zimbabwe as a focal point for nation-building and social transformation. In this regard, he argues that the Zimbabwean education system is situated in the context of culture, knowledge and power. Therefore, he concludes that, though the Zimbabwean official discourse on national culture in education includes claims of homogeneity, it is an elite driven exercise which is a replica of the colonial state. This is demonstrated by the dominance of English as the medium of instruction in schools and as the official language in Zimbabwe. This is a demonstration that the project of nation-building is a contested one, in this case contested in the education sector. However, in this study it is observed that education is not the only site in which national identities are constructed. The media are also critical sites in which national identities are constructed and contested through language since they carry language, they operate through language and they develop language (Tom, 2007). Raftopoulos and Mlambo (2009), consider the road for Zimbabwe becoming national as a‘hard one’ which has always been characterised by repression, oppression, hegemony,violence, politics of exclusion, co-option among others culminating into a real crisis.However, in this work, the verdict on the Zimbabwe’s quest of being a nation is not given.Rather, a chronology of events that mark the hard road of Zimbabwe to becoming national is given. This shows that this piece of literature is situated in the discipline of history, and for that reason the aspect of language and the nation is not explored at all. Just like NdlovuGatsheni (2009), Raftopoulos and Mlambo simply demonstrate the faultlines of Zimbabwe nationalism on the political front, but do not specifically look at national identity construction through a particular public domain to demonstrate the nature of the ‘hard road to becoming Zimbabwe’ which include repression, oppression, hegemony and politics of exclusion without making any reference to language use patterns in the media. This is because repression, oppression and the politics of exclusion can be demonstrated through the symbolic form of language usage. This validates the argument that most African states have experienced serious problems of national integration or nation-building (Webb and KemboSure, 2000). In this regard, Archie Mafeje in Shivji (2003) observes that all the struggles in Africa and most of the Third World centre on the national question. Therefore, this study brings in the language question into the Zimbabwean national question, using broadcasting as a case study.In this section it is demonstrated that the problem of nation-building is not confined to the African experience. Tjaden (2012) argues that one of the core problems of development in Latin America is the search for, and construction of, social, ethnic, cultural, and national identities. He examines the Chilean example where the national image was forged through the process of selective memory and mass ritual discourse in Zig-Zag newspaper. Tjaden (ibid) observes that the narrative of the Chilean nation follows certain recurring themes of national representation which include inclusion/exclusion, legitimisation, and integration which are part of what he calls the manual for ‘national identity formation’ of the Chilean oligarchy in 1910. This study profits from these remarks in the sense that it also focuses on the national identity construction of Zimbabwe through the media. However, unlike Tjaden’s study which focuses on the print media, this study focuses on radio and television broadcasting. Furthermore, this study focuses on the language question in the Zimbabwean national question basing on the inclusion or exclusion, legitimation and integration of the languages spoken in Zimbabwe in the national identity construction project and the delineating of the Zimbabwean locality.

DECLARATION
ABSTRACT
KEY WORDS
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Aim of the study
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Rationale
1.7 Literature review
1.8 Research methodology
1.8.1 Research design
1.8.2 Target population and sampling techniques
1.8.3 Data collection techniques
1.8.4 Data analysis and presentation plan
1.9 Theoretical framework
1. 10 Scope and organisation of study 
1. 11 Definition of key terms and abbreviations
1.12. Conclusion
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The search for national identity: A hard road!
2.3 Language and the nation
2.4 Language and the media: Purpose and policy issues
2.5 Mapping linguistic hegemony, marginalisation and exclusion
2.6 Media, localism principle and nation-building
2.7 Conclusion
CHAPTER III: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Background: The Marxian critique
3.2.1 The economy, human history and culture
3.2.2 Political economy, ideology and class conflict
3.3 Critical theory: A Marxian legacy
3.3.1. Gramscian paradigm: Hegemony and ideology
3.3.1.1 The concept of hegemony
3.3.1.2 The Gramscian organic intellectuals
3.3.1.3 Gramsci and ideology
3.2.1.4 Language, culture and hegemony
3.3.2 Althusserian paradigm: Ideological interpellation and ISAs
3.3.2.1 Ideology and ideological interpellation
3.3.2.2 Althusser’s ideological state apparatuses (ISAs) schema
3.3.3 World-systems theory: Globalisation and English as a global language
3.3.3.1 The world as a system
3.3.3.2 Wallerstein’s world system and hegemony
3.3.4 Electronic colonialism and the new technology
3.3.5 The political economy perspective
3.3.6 The public sphere concept
3.3.6.1 The public sphere: A model
3.3.6.2 The structural transformation of the public sphere
3.3.6.2.1 The media as public spheres or public by appearance only.
3.3.6.2.2 The state, media economics and the transformation of the public sphere
3.3.6.2.3 The alternative public spheres vs. the public sphere
3.3.7 Africana critical theory
3.3.7.1 The concerns of the Africana critical theory
3.4 Conclusion
CHAPTER IV: METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH METHODS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Research design
4.2.1 Research paradigm
4.2.2 Strategies of inquiry
4.2.2.1 Case study
4.2.2.2 Phenomenology
4.2.2.3 Historical research
4.2.3 Dimensions of the research design
4.3 Target population and sampling techniques
4.4 Data collection techniques
4.4.1 The questionnaire method
4.4.2 The interview method
4.4.3 Records and documentation
4.5 Data analysis and presentation plan
4.6 Validity and reliability considerations
4.7 Ethical considerations of the study
4.8 Conclusion
CHAPTER V: RESEARCH FINDINGS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The study context
5.2.1 The respondents’ profile
5.3 Presentation and analysis of data from questionnaires
5.3.1 Presentation and analysis of data from questionnaires from the ZBC television viewers and radio listeners
5.3.1.1 Presentation and analysis of findings from the questionnaire responses from the ZBC audience on the position and place of language in the localisation of ZBC broadcasting content
5.3.1.2 Presentation and analysis of findings from the questionnaire responses from the ZBC radio listeners and television viewers on the distribution of languages on the ZBC radio and television stations
5.3.1.3 Presentation and analysis of findings on the ZBC television viewers and radio listeners’ views on the relevance of the ZBC multilingual broadcasting towards the representation of the multilingual character of Zimbabwe
5.3.1.4 Presentation and analysis of findings on the ZBC television viewers and radio listeners’ views on the representation of the Zimbabwean nation by the ZBC’s language choices and practices
5.3.1.5 Presentation and analysis of the recommendations on the management of the language question and the national question on the ZBC radio and television stations
5.3.2 Presentation and analysis of data from questionnaires from the ZBC employees
5.3.2.1 Presentation and analysis of findings on the ZBC employees’ views on the contribution of the local content broadcasting policy to the development of indigenous African languages
5.3.2.2 Presentation and analysis of findings on the ZBC employees’ views on the equity of the spatial distribution of languages spoken in Zimbabwe on the ZBC radio and television stations
5.4 Presentation and analysis of data from interviews
5.4.1 Presentation and analysis of data from personal interviews
5.4.1.1 Interviewee 1
5.4.1.2 Interviewee 2
5.4.1.3 Interviewee 3
5.4.1.4 Interviewee 4
5.4.1.5 Interviewee 5
5.4.1.6 Interviewee 6
5.4.1.7 Interviewee 7
5.4.1.8 Interviewee 8
5.4.1.9 Interviewee 9
5.4.1.10 Interviewee 10
5.4.1.11 Interviewee 11
5.4.1.12 Interviewee 12
5.4.1.13 Interviewee 13
5.4.1.14 Interviewee 14
5.4.1.15 Interviewee 15
5.4.2 Presentation and analysis of findings from the group interviews (focus group discussions) with ZBC radio listeners and the television viewers
5.4.2.1 Presentation and analysis of findings on the group interviews on the treatment of the language issue on the ZBC radio and television local content broadcasting
5.4.2.2 Presentation and analysis of findings from group interviews on the equity of the spatial distribution of languages on the ZBC radio and television stations
5.4.2.3 Presentation and analysis of findings from group interviews on the significance of the ZBC multilingual broadcasting in the representation of the multilingual character of the Zimbabwe
5.4.2.4 Presentation and analysis of findings from group interviews on the construction and representation of the Zimbabwean nation on the ZBC radio and television by language use
5.4.2.5 Presentation and analysis of findings from group interviews on the recommendations on the management of multilingualism in the ZBC towards constructing an inclusive Zimbabwean nation
5.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER VI: DISCUSSION OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The language question in the ZBC broadcasting after the enactment of the Broadcasting Services Act (2001)
6.3 The English language, indigenous African languages and the localisation of the ZBC broadcasting content
6.4 Multilingual broadcasting policy and language use in the ZBC
6.5 Language use in the ZBC broadcasting, multilingualism and the nation-building
6.6 English, Shona and Ndebele hegemony in the ZBC
6.6.1 English hegemony in the ZBC broadcasting
6.6.2 Shona and Ndebele hegemony in the ZBC broadcasting
6.6.3 Shona hegemony on the ZBC
6.6.4 Zezuru in the ZBC broadcasting: A case of ‘marginalisation by inclusion’
6.7 Language should take precedence/be a priority in the ZBC local content broadcast
6.8 The way forward: Harnessing multilingualism, localism and the nation in the ZBC
6.8.1 The decentralisation of the ZBC radio and television stations
6.8.2 The Government and the ZBC’s commitment to the promotion of indigenous African languages
6.8.3 The introduction of community broadcasting in Zimbabwe
6.8.4 The ZBC’s recruitment of minority language speakers
6.8.5 The need to refurbish the ZBC infrastructure
6.8.6 Language harmonisation as panacea to multilingualism in Zimbabwe
6.8.7 Language policy of the media reform
6.9 Conclusion
CHAPTER VII: CONCLUSION
7.1 Introduction
7.2. Summary of the study
7.3 Conclusions of the study
7.4 Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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