Emerging Key Points from Literature on South African System of Education

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INTRODUCTION

An effective educational system revolves around its teachers and particularly around  school leadership. The quality of the teaching personnel recruited to man the teaching profession’s process is pivotal to a nation’s success or failure (Nordstrum, 2015, p. 8). Hardly any education system can progress above the capacity of its teachers, thus their significant role in any society (Zezekwa, Mudau, & Nkopodi, 2013, p. 323). I am of the opinion that any society and government rely on education institutions to equip their children and their youth, who are the up-and-coming generation, with sound education in order to develop and qualify them as reliable citizens who are also economically viable for the labour market (Reddy, Van der Berg, Rensburg, & Taylor, 2012, p. 1).

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Without a positive school climate, teachers may manifest poor educational and professional behavioural patterns such as absenteeism (Winters 2014, p. 45), professional unpreparedness and low morale (Masekoameng, 2010, pp. 50-51). Where teachers perceive a negative school climate, job satisfaction may be low, the motivation for teaching could be weak and the experience of stress may be very high (Collie, Shapka, & Perry, 2011). Collie et al. (2011) further explain that a negative school climate could pose a risk to members of the school community, teachers, parents and the administration when proper action is not taken to improve the school climate. Teachers experiencing a negative school climate may lack complete loyalty to the school’s goals, seeing that they may be involved in activities that do not benefit the school (Yao et al., 2015), which may affect the school climate even further. This, together with teachers’ commitment, consequently impacts on learners’ academic performances. The problem statement of this study is therefore to explore the teachers’ experiences of school climate and teacher organisational commitment.

RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY

Most of the available relevant literature (Cohen, McCabe, Michelli, & Pickeral, 2009; Loukas, 2007; McEvoy & Welker, 2000) comments on school climate but is silent on studies concerning teachers’ experiences of some school climate factors in relation to teacher organisational commitment in a South African context. In South Africa today, I observe that many schools are dysfunctional, which is reflected in their poor matric results. Very few schools are functional, based on good performance as recorded in matric outcomes (Spaull, 2012, pp. 5-6). Equally, based on the available data, I have also observed that without exception, more than half of the cohorts who commenced Grade 1 in all the Provinces, did not write the matric examination (Reddy et al., 2012, p. 7). Apart from many other factors that could contribute to this sharp drop in matric completion (Maarman & Lamont-Mbawuli, 2017, pp. 266-268), and to the fact that less than half of all matriculants attain distinctions, the school climate, and teacher commitment may also be a crucial factor in the prevailing situations experienced by school communities.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The main research question underpinning this study is as follows:
How do school climate dimensions explain teachers’ commitment?
The sub-questions guiding this study are:
1. What collegial leadership factors influence teacher commitment?
2. What professional teacher behaviour factors influence teacher commitment?
3. What learner achievement pressure factors affect teacher commitment?
4. What institutional vulnerability factors influence teacher commitment?

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT
1 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION, PROBLEM STATEMENT, RATIONALE, RESEARCH METHOD AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
1.6.1 Key Concept Clarification
1.6.1.1 School climate
1.6.1.2 Teacher organisational commitment
1.6.1.3 Motivation and teacher commitment
1.6.1.4 Job satisfaction and teacher commitment
1.6.1.5 Teacher self-efficacy and commitment.
1.7 RESEARCH PARADIGM
1.8 RESEARCH METHOD
1.8.1 Research Design
1.8.2 The justification for Employing Phenomenological Design
1.8.3 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size
1.8.4 Research Site
1.8.5 Data Collection Strategy
1.8.6 Interview
1.8.7 Observation
1.9 DATA ANALYSIS
1.10 ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
1.11 QUALITY CRITERIA
1.12 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
1.13 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.14 INTENDED CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY TO THE CORPUS OF KNOWLEDGE
1.15 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.16 SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS
1.17 CONCLUSION
2 CHAPTER TWO: THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
2.2.1 The Tri-Component Commitment Model (TCCM)
2.2.1.1 Affective commitment approach (emotional)
2.2.1.2 Continuance commitment approach (cost-benefit)
2.2.1.3 Normative commitment approach (obligatory)
2.2.2 Limitations of Tri-component Commitment Model (TCCM)
2.2.3 Emerging Key Points from Literature on Tri-component Commitment Model
2.2.4 School Climate Elements in Relation to TCCM
2.2.4.1 Collegial leadership
2.2.4.2 Professional teachers’ behaviour
2.2.4.3 Learners’ achievement pressure
2.2.4.4 Institutional vulnerability
2.2.5 Teachers’ Organisational Commitment in Relation to TCCM
2.3 SCHOOL CLIMATE TYPES
2.3.1 Open Climate
2.3.2 An engaged climate
2.3.3 Disengaged Climate
2.3.4 Closed Climate
2.4 LEADERSHIP STYLES AND SCHOOL CLIMATE
2.4.1 Situational Leadership Style and School Climate
2.5 CONCEPTUALISATION OF ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT
2.6 EMOTIONAL RESPONSES AND CONCEPTS RELATED TO ORGANISATIO COMMITMENT
2.6.1 TEACHERS’ ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT
2.6.1.1 Commitment to School
2.6.1.2 Commitment to Learners
2.6.1.3 Commitment to Teaching Profession
2.6.1.4 Commitment to the Society
2.6.1.5 Commitment to Professional Knowledge
2.6.1.6 Commitment to Union
2.7 COMMON ANTECEDENTS OF TEACHER OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT
2.7.1 Personality Traits
2.7.2 Gender According to some literature, gender
2.7.3 Age
2.7.4 Marital Status
2.7.5 Educational Qualifications
2.7.6 Organisational Tenure
2.7.7 Job Condition
2.7.8 Satisfaction with Pay
2.7.9 Work Setting
2.7.10 Job Security
2.8 MOTIVATION AND TEACHER COMMITMENT
2.8.1 Theories of Motivation
2.8.1.1 Hierarchy Need theory
2.8.1.2 The expectancy theory
2.8.1.3 The equity theory
2.9 JOB SATISFACTION AND COMMITMENT
2.10 TEACHER SELF-EFFICACY AND COMMITMENT
2.11 CONTEMPORARY STATE OF EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA
2.11.1 Government Education and Expenditure
2.11.2 A dysfunctional and functional school system with a focus on Grade 12 learners
2.11.3 Features of Bimodal Education Systems in South Africa
2.11.4 National School Certificate performance: 2011 to 2017
2.11.5 Accessibility to Basic Education
2.11.6 Dropout Rate from School among Young Individuals
2.11.7 Sharp Decline in Enrolment between Grade 11 to 12 Learners
2.11.8 Level of Education and Unemployment
2.11.9 Other Challenges Confronting South African Education
2.11.10 Comparative Performance of Learners in South Africa with Other African Countries and Implications for Education
2.11.11 Emerging Key Points from Literature on South African System of Education
2.12 CONCLUSION
3 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 PARADIGM AND ASSUMPTION
3.2.1 Background to the Study
3.2.2 Research Paradigm
3.2.3 Criticisms about this Research Paradigm
3.2.4 The justification for Adopting Interpretative Research Paradigm
3.3 Research Design
3.3.1 The justification for employing a Phenomenological Research Design
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND SAMPLE SIZE
3.4.1 Research Participants and Sites
3.5 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
3.5.1 Semi-structured Interviews
3.5.2 Observation
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS
3.6.1 Analysis of Data in the Study
3.7 QUALITY CRITERIA
3.7.1 Trustworthiness
3.7.2 Credibility
3.7.3 Dependability
3.7.4 Confirmability
3.7.5 Transferability
3.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS.
3.8.1 Informed Consent
3.8.2 Protection from Harm
3.8.3 Autonomy
3.8.4 Beneficence
3.8.5 Confidentiality
3.8.6 Non-maleficence
3.9 ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
3.10 CONCLUSION
4 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT OF DATA IN THE PRESENT STUDY.
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 FINDINGS
4.2.1 THEME ONE: CONCEPT OF COLLEGIAL LEADERSHIP
4.2.1.1 SUB-THEME 1.1: COLLEGIAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Category 1: Organisational justice
Category 2: Weak organisational justice
Category 3: School management teacher support.
Category 4: Confidence in teaching staff members.
4.2.2 THEME TWO: PROFESSIONAL TEACHER BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS
4.2.2.1 SUB-THEME 2.1: FEATURES OF PROFESSIONAL TEACHER BEHAVIOUR
Category 1: Teacher professional etiquette
Category 2: Teacher self-identity
Category 3: Teacher self-efficacy
4.2.2.2 SUB-THEME 2.2: PROFESSIONAL TEACHER CHALLENGES
Category 1: Lack of teacher motivation
Category 2: Poor teacher job satisfaction
Category 3: Administrative inhibitive professional teacher behaviour factors
Category 4: Teacher external political dominance
4.2.2.3 4.3.3: SUB-THEME 2.3: PROFESSIONAL TEACHER MOTIVATION
Category 1: Teacher intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
4.2.3 THEME THREE: LEARNER ACHIEVEMENT PRESSURE FEATURES
4.2.3.1 SUB-THEME 3.1: LEARNER ACHIEVEMENT PRESSURE CHALLENGES
Category 1: Learner varied academic problems
Category 2: Deficient school learning amenities
4.2.3.2 SUB-THEME 3.2: LEARNER BEHAVIOUR ROBBERY
Category 1: Generational shift in learner behavioural pattern
Category 2: Too much learner-centred approach
Category 3: Learner drug addiction and school violence
4.2.3.3 SUB-THEME 3.3: DEVELOPING LEARNER ACHIEVEMENT PRESSURE
Category 1: Learner school counselling with academic improvement strategies
Category 2: Identifying learners’ potential skills
4.2.4 THEME FOUR: LEVEL OF PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON INSTITUTIONAL VULNERABILITY
4.2.4.1 SUB-THEME 4.1: parental activities in school-related matters
Category 1: Parental school involvement
Category 2: Parental low learner school homework assistance
4.2.4.2 Sub-theme 4.2: Poor parental financial status and counselling
Category 1: Parental weak socio-economic status
Category 2: Parental need for guidance and counselling
4.3 SUMMARY
4.4 CONCLUSION
5 CHAPTER FIVE: CONSOLIDATED FINDINGS RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 Concept of Collegial leadership
5.2.1 Literature in alignment with the findings of this study
5.2.2 Literature refuting the findings in this study
5.3 Professional teacher behavioural patterns
5.3.1 Literature in alignment with the findings of this study
5.3.2 Literature refuting the findings in this study
5.4 Learner achievement pressure features
5.4.1 Literature in alignment with the findings of this study
5.4.2 Literature refuting the findings in this study
5.5 Level of parental influence on institutional vulnerability
5.5.1 Literature in alignment with the findings of this study
5.5.2 Literature refuting the findings in this study
5.6 MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION
5.6.1 How do school climate dimensions explain teachers’ organisational commitment?
5.7 Contribution of the study to the corpus of knowledge
5.7.1 Theoretical contribution
5.7.2 Practical contribution
5.7.3 Methodological contribution
5.7.4 Recommendations
5.8 Limitation of the study
5.9 Recommendation for further research
5.10 Conclusion of the Chapter
6 List of references

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School climate and teachers’ organisational commitment in high schools

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