Environmental Issues and Conflicts in the Great Lakes Region

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Chapter 2: Data Analysis and Discussion of Results: Twofold-love and Socio-Cultural and Ecclesiastical Contexts of the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi

Can teaching twofold love contribute to a culture of peace in the Great Lakes region? This is the research question in this study. As the whole study develops an answer to this question in the context of qualitative research, the first chapter has mainly dealt with a general overview, research methodology, potential benefits of the study, and assumptions.The second chapter will follow the logic of the research question by dealing precisely with the relevant details of data analysis and discussion of the results. In this context, the second chapter will start by explaining in detail the means for data collection in terms of a qualitative approach. In the first place, this comprises the author’s day-to-day experiences in the Great Lakes region, academic conferences, focus group discussions, the pilot study and especially the questionnaire. After a detailed explanation of this research approach and the procedure for data collection, this chapter will discuss the results in the context of the Great Lakes region. Although the second chapter will start with the process of data analysis and discussion of results, it will insist on the socio-economic, political, environmental and ecclesiastical identification of what goes by the name of the Great Lakes region and its inhabitants. This analysis of the regional context will then help to determine whether or not teaching twofold love is really needed in the Great Lakes region in order to achieve a culture of peace. If needed, a discussion on how to teach this will constitute the third chapter.

Data Collection: Day-to Day Experiences-Conferences-Pilote Study

Day-to Day Experiences

Although this study has not used participant observation as a traditional procedure for data collection, it is important to deal with this in order to have a general understanding. This will help one to differentiate day-to-day personal experiences from participant observation. According to De Vos et al (2002: 280), “participant observation can be described as a qualitative research procedure that studies the natural and everyday set up in particular community or situation.” With regard to the researcher’s attitude in participant observation, Muller and Sheppard (as quoted by De Vos et al, 2002: 279) “state that the researcher should be actively involved in the daily situation of respondents while observing their behaviour.”Here, there are two important areas of involvement for the researcher. Firstly, he/she is a participant, and secondly, he/she is an observer. Based on the essence of the objectives of the study, the researcher should look for a good balance along the continuum of total involvement and total observation. Coertze (as quoted by De Vos et al, 2002: 280) says that “the phenomenological approach is important in participant observation as the research endeavours to gain an in-depth insight into the manifestations of the reality. Participant observation is thus anti-positivistic in as much as this procedure does not aim at measuring in numbers, or gaining rules for behaviour.” Kvale (as cited by De Vos et al, 2002: 192) “defines qualitative interviews as attempts to understand the world from the participant’s point of view, to unfold the meaning of people’s experiences [and] to uncover their lived world prior to scientific explanations”. According to De Vos et al (2002: 298), “qualitative studies typically employ unstructured or semi-structured interviews. Unstructured interviews are also known as in-depth interviews […] Unstructured interviews are conducted without utilizing any of the researcher’s prior information, experience or opinions in a particular area.” According to May (as cited by De Vos et al, 2002: 298), “semi-structured interviews are defined as those organised around areas of particular interest, while still allowing considerable flexibility in scope and depth”. According to De Vos et al (2002: 298): The unstructured one-to-one interview, also sometimes referred to as the in-depth interview, merely extends and formalises conversation. It is referred to as a “conversation with a purpose”. The purpose is not to get answers to questions, nor to test hypotheses, nor to “evaluate” in the usual sense of the term. At the root of unstructured interviewing is an interest in understanding the experience of other people and the meaning they make of that experience. It is focused, discursive and allows the researcher and participant to explore an issue. It is used to determine individuals’ perceptions, opinions, facts and forecasts, and their reactions to initial findings and potential solutions. It is also important to note that in an unstructured interview, one needs to differentiate between the content of the interview and its process. The content of an interview, which is the easiest component, is “what the participant says”. On the other hand, the process of an interview, which is both a powerful and elusive component, involves reading between the lines in what the participant says, while noticing how he/she talks and behaves during the interview. In the end, the researcher remains the barometer.


Key Terms
List of Abbreviations
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 General Overview
1.2 Research Methodology
1.2.1 Problem Statement and Rationale for the Study
1.2. 2 Research Problem and Objectives
1.2. 3 Preliminary Literature Review Social Dependent Variables Practical Theology by Gerben Heitink Theology and Social Structure by Robin Gill Four Theses Among Sociologists of Knowledge Theology is Mere Ideology Theology as General Ideology Theology Versus Ideology Theology as Socially Constructed Reality Social determinants of Theology Social Determinants of Individuals Theologians Social Determinants of Theological Positions The Social Significance of Theology The Dilemma of Education in Africa by Pai Obanya Sciences, Professions, Scientific Theory, Professional Research and Professional Practice According to de Vos and others Sciences Professions Scientific Theory Professional Research Professional Practice Ethical Aspects of Research Foundational Issues in Christian Education by Robert W. Pazmino Biblical Foundations Theological Foundations
1.2. Historical Foundations Conclusion
1.2.4 Research Design
1.2.5 Research Methods
1. 3 Potential Benefits of the Study 
1.4 Assumptions
Chapter 2: Data Analysis and Discussion of Results: Twofold-love and Socio-Cultural and Ecclesiastical Contexts of the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi 
2.1 Collection of data: Day-to Day Experiences-Conferences-Pilot Study
2.1.1 Day-to Day Experiences
2.1.2 Conferences and Focus Group Discussions
2.1.3 Pilot Study
2.2 Data Collection: Questionnaires and Discussion of Results
2.2.1 Identification Gender Country and Age Country and Marital Status Country and Occupation Country and Denomination Socio-cultural and Ecclesiastic Contexts of the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi The Concept of the Great Lakes Region Environmental Issues and Conflicts in the Great Lakes Region The Democratic Republic of Congo Political context Comments Economic Context Sociological Context Ecclesiastical Context Summary The Republic of Rwanda Political Context Comments Economic Context Sociological Context Ecclesiastical Context Summary The Republic of Burundi Political Context Comments Economic Context Sociological Context Ecclesiastical Context Summary 6 Similarities and Differences between the DRC, Burundi and Rwanda 6.1 Similarities 6.3 Conclusion
Chapter 3 Teaching and Twofold Love: Data Analysis and Discussion of Results
3.1 Theoretical Teaching
3.2 Practical Teaching
3.3 Affective Teaching 
3.4 Need Oriented Teaching
3.5 Contextual Teaching
3.6 Good Pattern in Behaviour of the Teacher
3.7 Christian Behaviors and Teaching of Twofold Love
3.8 Idleness as a symbol of Ineffective Teaching
3.9 Educational Psychology and Teaching Twofold Love in the Great Lakes Region
3.9.1 Educational Psychology and Effective Teaching Historical background Teaching: Art and Science Effective Teaching Professional Knowledge and Skills Commitment and Motivation
3.9. 2 Social Contexts and Socio-emotional Development
3.9 2.1 Contemporary Theories Social Contexts of Developments
3.9 2.3 Socio-emotional Development: Self and Moral Development
3. 9.3 Individual Variations Intelligence And Twofold Love Learning and Thinking Styles Personality
3.9.4. Learning Simple forms of Learning Habituation Sensitisation Classical Conditioning .1 Principles of Classical Conditioning .1.1 Acquisition .1.2 Extinction .1.3 Generalisation .1.4 Discrimination Application of Classical Conditioning Contemporary Theories Operant Conditioning Thorndike’s Law of Effect Burrhus Frederic Skinner’s Research Principles of Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Reinforcement Schedules Punishment Shaping Extinction Generalisation and Discrimination Applications of Operant Conditioning Learning by Observation Bandura’s Experiments Bandura’s Theory of Imitation Theory of Generalised Imitation Factors Affecting Imitation Influence of Television Other Forms of Learning Language Learning Learning by Listening and Reading Concept Formation Learning Motor Skills Theories of Learning The Behavioural Approach The Cognitive Approach Evaluation of the Two Approaches Factors that Influence Learning Age Motivation Prior Experience Intelligence Learning and Developmental Disorders
3.9.5 A Conclusion on Learning and Twofold Love
Chapter 4: Toward Solutions to The Dilemmas Of Teaching Christian Education In The Great Lakes Region: Love, Culture of Peace,Secularisation And Poverty
4.1 Love
4.1.1 Vernacular Word for Love in the Great Lake Region
4.1.2 Love of God and Peace on Earth
4.1.3 Science Alone and Peace on Earth
4.1.4 Good Christians and Two-fold Love
4.1.5 Five Languages of Love
4.1.6 Twofold Love in the Great Lakes Region Biblical Concept of Love Faith According to James Fowler and Twofold Love in the Great Lakes Region Five Love Languages According to Gary Chapman and Their Practice in the Great Lakes Region Words of Affirmations Quality Time Receiving Gifts Acts of Service Physical Touch Sexuality In the Marriage Only
4. 2 Education and Culture of Peace
4.2.1 Good-Educated Christians and Killing
4.2.2 Good-Educated Christians and Self-Defense
4.2.3 Good-Educated Christians and Vengeance
4. 2.4 Are Peaceful Means Before Oppressors Possible?
4.2.5 Are Violent Means Before Oppressors Possible?
4.2.6 Is Tribalism an objective way of achieving Social Development?
4.2.7 Culture of Peace and Twofold Love In The Great Lakes Region
4.2.8 Problem and Problems: The Case of Twofold Love
4.3 Secularisation
4.3 .1 The Three Ways of Defining Secularisation
4.3 .2 Causes of Secularisation in the Great Lakes Region
4.4 Poverty and Health Problems
4.4.1 List of Hellish Behaviors Among Church Leaders
4.4.2 Access to Heaven
4.4.3 Welfare on Earth
4.4.4 Causes of Poverty in the Family
4.4.5 Causes of One’s Poverty
4.4.6 Did Church Teaching Encourage Poverty in the Great Lakes Region?
4.4.7 Does the Bible Encourage Poverty?
4.4.8 HIV Prevention
4.4.9 Poverty Alleviation and HIV Prevention
4.4 .10 Other Means of HIV Prevention
4.4.11 Attitudes of the Community Towards HIV Positive People
4.4.12 Suggestions For The Dilemma of Capitalism and Marxism in Christian Education Capitalism Marxism Hiatus Between Christian Education and Environmental
Issues in The Great Lakes Region: The Case of 20th Century Evangelical Thought and Poverty in the DRC The UN Report on the Plunder of Natural Resources in the DRC as Cause of Wars in The Great Lakes Region A Practical Suggestion Based on Twofold Love
4. 4.13. Need of Transcendental Phenomenology: A way Towards Solutions
4.5 A Curriculum Development
4.5.1 A Philosophy of Christian Education: Gordon Clark
4.5.2 Intelligence
4.5.3 Needs in the Great Lakes Region
4.5.4 Applying the Socratic Method in the Great Lakes Region
4.5.5 Theology of Creation and Modern Environmental Issues
4.5.6 Developmental Psychology
4.5.7 Sociological Aspects
4.5.8 A Philosophy of Management
4.5.9 Abnormal Psychology in the Great Lakes Region
4.5.10 The Concept of the Foretaste of Great Development for Christians
4.5.11 An Integrative Theology in Christian Education for the Great Lakes Region
4.5.12 A Logical and Practical Answer to Karl Marx That Religion is Not an Opium of People 4.5.13 A theology of Reconstruction: The Case of Kä Mana


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