Experimental analysis of Indoor environmental quality and energy consumption in social housing units

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Smart Building Architecture:

The architecture of the smart building is based on five layers as shown on figure 1.1. All the layers are connected to each other in order to change data and queries. The fives layers are:
– Layer 1 – Physical layer: It is the lowest layer of the smart building architecture which stands for the Instrumented building.
– Layer 2 – Sensors & Actuators Layer: It is composed of: o Wireless sensors that sense different indoor parameters such as temperature,
humidity…etc and send it through the network to the local server (Data Management Layer). o Actuators that perform Actions such control of the lights based on the local server queries.
– Layer 3 – Data Transmission Layer: it includes the network and a set of protocols that operate the communication between the sensors, the actuators and the local server as well as the communication between the local server and the cloud.
– Layer 4 – Data Management Layer: It constitutes the central element of the smart building system. It consists of the local server which is responsible for storing, cleaning and analyzing the data sent by sensors. In addition to controlling the actuators.
– Layer 5 – Services Layer: it designates services to occupants such as consumption information, indoor comfort information and building’s equipment control. We distinguish two type of data flow:
– the Monitoring data: allows to monitor the indoor parameters (comfort, consumption, security) of the buildings (Physical Layer) with the help of sensors (Sensors/Actuators Layer) that send the data via the network (Data Transmission Layer) to the local server (Data management Layer) in order to analyze and store them. A Users interface hosted on the local server allows the end-users (Services Layer) to consult the data of their buildings and the graphs of their consumptions in real time. The service layer is composed of the user interface and the end users (occupants and managers).
=- The Control data: allows the end-users to control the different elements of the building such as lights, water consumption, etc. via the user interface, which communicates the command to the local server. The local server identifies the correct actuator identifier, then it broadcasts the command with the actuator identifier in the network, the actuator (Sensors/Actuators Layer) with the same identifier perform the action.

Layer 1- Physical layer (buildings):

The physical layer is the first layer of the smart building system. It consists of the buildings and its infrastructure. Figure 1.2 shows an instrumented building plan. It provides an environment to study the internal comfort parameters of different pieces of the building and to monitor the consumption of the occupants. In addition to the possibility of controlling the equipment such as lights.

Layer 2 – Sensors & actuators Layer

The sensor & actuators Layer aims to gather data from the environment through wireless sensors and control the building’s equipment using actuators. Figure 1.3 shows the architecture of this layer. The wireless sensor consists of the sensor unit which is responsible for capturing the physical quantity and transform it into a digital value, to be processed and stored by the processing and memory unit. When the data is ready, the communication unit sends the data the local server and waits for requests that might be sent by user to change the parameters of the sensor such as the transmission frequency. The wireless actuator consists of control units that execute the queries coming from the processing to control the building equipment.

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Consumption sensors

Consumption sensors provide information about occupant consumption. The system includes smart water meter and smart electrical consumption. Two systems were used to measure the electrical consumption:
• Eltako fwz 14-65a4: it is energy meter sensor with maximum intensity of 65A and standby loss only 0.5 Watt. It uses enOcean protocol to send data to the gateway.
• Panstamp Water Meter: This is a sensor based on the panstamp NRG2 module. We developed it in our laboratory. It sends a packet to the gateway for each litter consumed using the SWAP protocol.

Security sensors

The system includes the following safety and security sensors:
• NODON SDO21055: Door and window opening detector, it sends a packet to the gateway every time a person opens or closes a door or a window using the enocean protocol.
• GIGACONCEPT DO13-421B-E6: Wall presence sensor, it sends a packet to the gateway using the enocean protocol each time it detects a movement of a person or an object.
• Eltako FRW-WS7: it is an enocean wireless smoke detector that sends a packet to the gateway when it detects smoke in addition to a loud beep.

Actuators

The following actuators are used to control the building equipment:
– Wireless valve actuator8: is a wireless actuator that is used to adjust the flow rates to radiators in hot water and steam heating systems. It communicates wirelessly with the local server using enocean protocol.
– Wireless actuator light controller FLC61NP-230V 9: an enocean wireless light controller with 5 selectable operating modes.
– Dual-channel wireless switch actuator 10: is an enocean dual-channel wireless switch. Every channel controls a group of 220V electronic lighting loads.

Table of contents :

Acknowledgments
Abstract
Résumé
Table of Content
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
General Introduction
1 Chapter 1: Methodology: Conception of a smart building monitoring system 
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Smart Building Architecture:
1.3 Layer 1- Physical layer (buildings):
1.4 Layer 2 – Sensors & actuators Layer
1.4.1 Sensors
1.4.2 Actuators
1.5 Layer 3 – Data Transmission Layer
1.5.1 Short Range Protocols
1.5.2 Long Range Protocols
1.6 Layer 4: Data Management Layer
1.6.1 Hardware Specifications
1.6.2 Software Architecture
1.6.3 Interactions between software modules
1.7 Layer 5: Services Layer:
1.8 Conclusion:
2 Chapter 2: Use of smart monitoring and users’ feedback for to investigate the impact of the indoor environment on learning efficiency
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Methodology and materials
2.2.1 Methodology
2.2.2 Data collection
2.2.3 Data analysis
2.3 Results and discussion
2.3.1 Results of experiment 1
2.3.2 Results of Experiment 2
2.3.3 Results of 5 experiments
2.4 Conclusion
3 Chapter 3: Experimental analysis of Indoor environmental quality and energy consumption in social housing units
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Methodology and materials
3.2.1 Overview
3.2.2 Monitoring system
3.2.3 Monitoring program
3.3 Results and Discussion
3.3.1 Winter season
3.3.2 Summer Saison
3.4 Conclusion:
General Conclusion
References

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