# Finite Element Modeling and Interoperability Study of ICT

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## Circular Pads of Type RNO-RNO

This section shows two types of ICTs: the first one is the system without the EV chassis, and the second one, which is the realistic one, is the system with the EV chassis. The two systems have the same power pads, and the same geometrical parameters, they are of RNO-RNO prototype. We study the influence on the electric parameters of two geometric parameters: the distance between the coils (or the air gap), and the axis shift between the coils centers; d and sh respectively. TABLE III schedules the parameters that define the RNO-RNO ICT prototype. In this model, 􀝏􀬵 􀵌 􀝏􀬶 and 􀝊􀬵 􀵌 􀝊􀬶, 􀝒􀬵and 􀝒􀬶 are the volume of the coils. The coils are made of isolated Litz wire, and the operating frequency is 30􀝇􀜪􀝖.

### Modelling without EV Chassis

The structure of this system is shown in Fig. II.1. As illustrated before, it contains two circular coils and circular ferrites that cover the coils. Since the distance between the 􀝊 turns coils is very small the coils are considered as one turn whose section is equal to 􀝊 multiplied by the section of a single wire. So the total volume is kept the same. The corresponding solution will not be different for the cases of 􀝊 turns structure or a single turn structure as soon as they have the same volume for an operating frequency of 30􀝇􀜪􀝖. Also the current density is uniform for all turns in real test, and it is uniform in the section of the modeled inductor in simulation. As mentioned before, the current in calculation is imposed and the inductor is nonconductive.

#### Modelling with EV Chassis

The 3D structure of the ICT with the chassis is illustrated in Fig. II.6. It consists of a transmitter coil, a receiver coil and two ferrites plates that completely cover the coils. A steel plate which describes a simplified model of EV chassis is added in the design. The presence of the chassis has significant effect on the values of (􀜮􀬵, 􀜮􀬶, 􀜯). It ensures better protection for the embedded electronic devices and reduces passengers’ exposure to magnetic field.
To model the chassis by FEM in COMSOL, two cases are considered and compared:
– The chassis is made of a 5􀝉􀝉 width stainless steel (μ􀯥~1000 􀯁 􀯠 , 􀟪~10􀬺􀜵/􀝉) sheet. With the real characteristics the skin depth is very thin (~100μm) at 􀝂 􀵌 30􀝇􀜪􀝖. For this case the element size in the finite element mesh size should be less than 􀬵 􀬷 the skin depth in order to have correct results with the FEM.
– The chassis is considered as a perfect electric conductor. (􀝊. 􀜬 􀵌 0, 􀝊 􀵈 􀜣 􀵌 0). Therefore only the mesh of the outer surface of the chassis is considered.

Study of the Interoperability

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The interoperability study is a major point in the project CINELI. In this study, different power pads are concerned to build the ICT. The goal is to check the ability for different systems to work together. As there are three power pads (RNO, SE, NTC), a combination between two of them is performed to build the ICT.
In CINELI project, there are four essential interoperable prototypes that are studied: NTCRNO, SE-RNO, SE-NTC and RNO-NTC. Any other combination can be also implemented like: NTC-SE or RNO-SE, but in the project CINELI, the SE power pad takes only a place in the primary side (ground). The other two pads can be in primary side or mounted in the secondary side (EV). The specifications of each power pad are illustrated in TABLE V, and the considered interoperable combinations are shown in Fig. II.18.

List of Figures
List of Tables
Abstract
Résumé
General Introduction
Chapter I : Global View
I.1. Introduction
I.2. Inductive Coupling (IC)
I.2.a. Inductive Coupling Transformer (ICT)
I.2.b. ICT Electrical Model
I.2.c. ICT Modelling for Parameter and Performance Characterization
I.3. Capacitive Coupling (CC)
I.4. Compensation of Inductive Behavior and Resonant Converter
I.4.a. Inductance Compensation and Resonance Frequency
a) SS Leakage Compensation
b) SS Self Compensation
c) SP Compensation
I.4.b. Resonant Converters
I.5. Battery
I.5.a. Battery Characteristics
I.5.b. Modelling
I.5.c. Charging Profile
I.6. Losses
I.7. Radiation of Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) System
I.8. CINELI Project Goals and Thesis Novelty
Chapter II : Finite Element Modeling and Interoperability Study of ICT
II.1. Introduction
II.2. Modelling of ICT
II.3. Circular Pads of Type RNO-RNO
II.3.a. Modelling without EV Chassis
II.3.b. Modelling with EV Chassis
II.4. Validation Test
II.5. Square Pads of Type NTC-NTC
II.6. Study of the Interoperability
II.6.a. Prototypes Description
II.6.b. Comparison
II.7. Conclusion
Chapter III : Resonant IPT System and Control
III.1. Introduction
III.2. Comparison between Different Compensation Topologies
III.2.a. General Electrical Model Presentation
III.2.b. Compensation Topologies
A) SS Self Inductances (􀡿􀡿􀡸 ) Compensation
B) SS Leakage Inductances (􀡿􀡿 ) Compensation
C) SP Inductances Compensation
III.2.c. Comparison of The Compensations
III.2.d. 􀡿􀡿􀡸 Compensated Interoperable Systems Study
III.3. 􀡿􀡿􀡸 Compensated ICT Model in COMSOL with Electrical Coupling
III.4. 􀡿􀡿􀡸 Resonant IPT Full System and Control
III.4.a. Open Loop System
III.4.b. Closed Loop System
III.5. Conclusion
Chapter IV : Interoperability Experimental Tests and Models Validations
IV.1. Introduction
IV.2. RNO-RNO Prototype (Test Bench V1)
IV.3. SE-RNO, NTC-RNO, NTC-NTC and SE- NTC Prototypes (Test Bench V1)
IV.4. Comparison between Different Prototypes for Test Bench V1
IV.4.a. RNO-RNO Prototype
IV.4.b. SE-RNO, NTC-RNO, NTC-NTC and SE- NTC Prototypes
IV.5. Test Bench V2
IV.5.a. NTC-NTC Prototype (Test Bench V2 (EV))
IV.5.b. NTC-RNO Prototype (Test Bench V2 (EV))
IV.5.c. SE-NTC Prototype (Test Bench V2 (EV))
IV.6. Comparison between Different Prototypes for Test Bench V2
IV.7. Conclusion
General Conclusion & Perspectives
References

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